• Sonuç bulunamadı

Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae) puplarının yağ asidi bileşimine düşük sıcaklığın etkileri

N/A
N/A
Protected

Academic year: 2021

Share "Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera:Pyralidae) puplarının yağ asidi bileşimine düşük sıcaklığın etkileri"

Copied!
43
0
0

Yükleniyor.... (view fulltext now)

Tam metin

(1)

T.C.

6(/d8.h1ø9(56ø7(6ø )(1%ø/ø0/(5ø(167ø7h6h

PLODIA INTERPUNCTELLA +EQHU

(LEPIDOPTERA:PYRALIDAE) PUPLARININ <$ö$6ø'ø%ø/(ùø0ø1('hùh. 6,&$./,ö,1(7.ø/(5ø 7OD\$.,1&, <h.6(./ø6$16 7(=ø

Biyoloji Anabilim DalÕ

Haziran-2011 KONYA +HU+DNNÕ6DNOÕGÕU

(2)
(3)

7(=%ø/'ø5ø0ø

%XWH]GHNLEWQELOJLOHULQHWLNGDYUDQÕúYHDNDGHPLNNXUDOODUoHUoHYHVLQGHHOGH HGLOGL÷LQL YH WH] \D]ÕP NXUDOODUÕQD X\JXQ RODUDN KD]ÕUODQDQ EX oDOÕúPDGD EDQD DLW ROPD\DQKHUWUOLIDGHYHELOJLQLQND\QD÷ÕQDHNVLNVL]DWÕI\DSÕOGÕ÷ÕQÕELldiririm.

DECLARATION PAGE

I hereby declare that all information in this document has been obtained and presented in accordance with academic rules and ethical conduct. I also declare that, as required by these rules and conduct, I have fully cited and referenced all material and results that are not original to this work.

(4)

iv

g=(7

<h.6(./ø6$16 7(=ø

PLODIA INTERPUNCTELLA +EQHU) (LEPIDOPTERA:PYRALIDAE)

383/$5,1,1<$ö$6ø'ø%ø/(ùø0ø1('hùh.6,&$./,ö,1(7.ø/(5ø 7OD\$.,1&, 6HOoXNhQLYHUVLWHVL)HQ%LOLPOHUL(QVWLWV Biyoloji $QDELOLP'DOÕ 'DQÕúPDQ<UG'Ro'U/H\OD.$/<21&8 2011, 35 Sayfa -UL 3URI'U$EGXUUDKPDQ$.7h06(. <UG'Ro'U/H\OD.$/<21&8 <UG'Ro'U +VH\LQd(7ø1

YHJQVUH\OHGúNVÕFDNOÕNWD ƒ& WXWXODQ Plodia interpunctella SXSODUÕQÕQ\D÷ DVLGL ELOHúLPOHUL DUDúWÕUÕOPÕúWÕU <D÷ DVLGL ELOHúLPOHULQLQ E\N ELU E|OPQ ROHLN (%52,60-%54,58), palmitik (%20,80-%22,87), palmitoleik (%1,81-%2,75), linoleik (%15,29-%15,67), ve stearik (%2,90-%3,23) asitlerin ROXúWXUGXNODUÕJ|UOPúWU'úNVÕFDNOÕ÷DED÷OÕRODUDNSXSODUÕQ\D÷DVLGLELOHúLPLnde NDQWLWDWLIIDUNOÕOÕNODUEHOLUOHQPLúWLU

'úNVÕFDNOÕNWDQGROD\ÕSXSODUÕQ\D÷DVLGLELOHúLPOHULQGHGR\PXú\D÷DVLWOHUL \]GHVL (27,39%-%24,67) D]DOPÕúDúÕUÕGR\PDPÕú\D÷DVLWOHUL \]GHVL (%16,79-%18,58) LVHDUWPÕúWÕU

(5)

v

ABSTRACT

MS THESIS

EFFECTS OF LOW TEMPERATURE ON THE FATTY ACID COMPOSITIONS OF PUPAE OF PLODIA INTERPUNCTELLA (Hubner)

(LEPIDOPTERA:PYRALIDAE)

7OD\$.,1&,

THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF NATURAL AND APPLIED SCIENCE OF SELCUK UNIVERSITY

THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN BIOLOGY

Advisor: Asst.Prof.Dr. Leyla KALYONCU 2011, 35 Pages

Jury

3URI'U$EGXUUDKPDQ$.7h06(. Asst.Prof.Dr. Leyla KALYONCU

Asst.Prof.Dr. +VH\LQd(7ø1

Fatty acid compositions of pupae of Plodia interpunctella which exposed to low temperature ƒ&  IRU   DQG  GD\V ZHUH LQYHVWLJDWHG ,W ZDV VKRZHG WKDW ROHLF (%52,60-%54,58), palmitic (%20,80-%22,87), palmitoleic (%1,81-%2,75), linoleic (%15,29-%15,67), and stearic (%2,90-%3,23) acid constituted the major part of fatty acid compositions of pupae. Quantitative differences were found due to low temperature in the fatty acid compositions of pupae.

In the fatty acid compositions of pupae, saturated fatty acids percentage (27,39%-%24,67) were decreased but percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (%16,79-%18,58) were increased by low temperature.

(6)

vi

g16g=

6HOoXN hQLYHUVLWHVL )HQ )DNOWHVL %L\RORML %|OP +D\YDQ )izyolojisi- %L\RNLP\D $UDúWÕUPD /DERUDWXDUÕQGD \UWOHQ EX \NVHN OLVDQV WH] oDOÕúPDVÕQGD

Plodia interpunctella SXSODUÕQÕQ \D÷ DVLGL ELOHúLPLQH GúN VÕFDNOÕ÷ÕQ HWNLOHUL

DUDúWÕUÕOPÕú JD] NURPRWR÷UDILN DQDOL]OHUL 6HOoXN hQLYHUVLWHVL )HQ )DNOWHVL .LP\D %|OP/DERUDWXDUÕQGD\DSÕOPÕúWÕU

%XoDOÕúPDQÕQROXúPDVÕQGDNL\DUGÕPYHGHVWHNOHULQGHQGROD\ÕEDúWDGDQÕúPDQÕP YHGH÷HUOLKRFDP<UG'Ro'U/H\OD.DO\RQFX¶\DGHUVOHULPYHoDOÕúPDODUÕPER\XQFD yardÕPODUÕQGDQ GROD\Õ 3URI 'U $EGXUUDKPDQ $NWPVHN¶H, laboratuarda numunelerin KD]ÕUODQPDVÕ YH HNVWUDNVL\RQ DúDPDODUÕQGD \DUGÕPODUÕQGDQ GROD\Õ $Uú *|U *|NKDQ =HQJLQ¶HYH<DYX]6HOLPdDNPDN¶DWHúHNNUOHULPLVXQDUÕP.

$\UÕFDH÷LWLPLPYHoDOÕúPDODUÕPER\XQFDPDGGLYHPDQHYLKHU]DPDQ\DQÕPGD olan sevgili aileme sonsX]WHúHNNUOHU

7OD\$.,1&, KONYA-2011

(7)

vii ødø1'(.ø/(5 g=(7 ... iv ABSTRACT ... v g16g= ... vi ødø1'(.ø/(5 ... vii 6ø0*(/(59(.,6$/70$/$5 ... viii *ø5øù ... 1 .$<1$.$5$ù7,50$6, ... 4 'úN6ÕFDNOÕ÷D.DUúÕ'LUHQo ... 9 2.2. Diapoz ... 11 6X.D\EÕ ... 11 6R÷XN.RUX\XFX3ROLDONROOHUYH.DUERKLGUDWODU ... 12 3. MATERYAL VE METOT ... 14 gUQHNOHULQ(OGHHGLOPHVL ... 14 <D÷(Nstraksiyonu ... 14 <D÷$VLWOHULQLQ0HWLO(VWHUOHULQLQ+D]ÕUODQPDVÕ ... 15 *D].URPRWR÷UDILN$QDOL]OHU ... 15 $5$ù7,50$6218d/$5,9(7$57,ù0$ ... 16 $UDúWÕUPD6RQXoODUÕ ... 16 7DUWÕúPD ... 24 6218d/$59(g1(5ø/(5 ... 27 KAYNAKLAR ... 28 g=*(d0øù ... 35

(8)

viii

6ø0*(/(59(.,6$/70$/$5

.ÕVDOWPDODU

FID : Flame Ionization Dedector ($OHYL\RQODúWÕUÕFÕGHGHNW|U) INPs : Ice-1XFOHRWLQJ3URWHLQV %X]ROXúWXUDQSURWHLQOHU

08)$0RQR8QVDWXUDWHG)DWW\$FLG 7HNOLGR\PDPÕú\D÷DVLdi) PUFA : Poly 8QVDWXUDWHG)DWW\DFLG $úÕUÕGR\PDPÕú\D÷DVLGL SCP : 6XSHU&RROLQJ3RLQW $úÕUÕVR÷XWPDQRNWDVÕ 

SFA : 6DWXUDWHG)DWW\$FLG 'R\PXú\D÷DVLGL

(9)

1. *ø5øù

Plodia interpunctella +EQHU  WDKÕOODUD ]DUDU YHUHQ ELU JYH WUGU .|NHQL

*QH\$PHULNDRODQEXNR]PRSROLWWU\DúDPÕQÕ\ÕOER\XQFDVÕFDNRUWDPODUGDVUGUU (Baker, 2000).

P. interpunctella¶QÕQ erginleri 8- PP ER\XQGD EDú YH WRUDNV NÕUPÕ]ÕPVÕ

kahverengi, arka kanatlar grimsi renktedir. KDQDW DoÕNOÕ÷Õ \DNODúÕN - PP¶dir. *HUL\H GR÷UX NDWODQPÕú NDQDWODUD VWWHQ EDNÕOGÕ÷Õ ]DPDQ |Q NDQDGÕQ DUND NÕVPÕQÕQ ¶OLN E|OP EDNÕU UHQJLQGH NDQDGÕQ NDLGHVLQH GR÷UX RODQ NDODQ |Q NÕVÕP LVH DoÕN grimsi renktedir (Baker, 2000).

Yumurtalar 0.3-PPER\XQGDGÕUYHJULGHQNLUOLEH\D]DNDGDUGH÷LúHQUHQNOHUL YDUGÕU<XPXUWDODUEHVLQ]HULQHYH\D\DNÕQÕQDEÕUDNÕOÕU(UJLQELUGLúLEHVLQLQ]HULQH YH\D \DNÕQÕQD WHN VHIHUGH - NDGDU \XPXUWD EÕUDNDELOLU 'LúLOHUL \DNODúÕN  JQON KD\DWODUÕ ER\XQFD - DGHW \XPXUWD EÕUDNDELOLU <XPXUWD EÕUDNPD WHN WHN YH\D NPHOHU KDOLQGH RODELOLU <XPXUWDODU - JQ LoLQGH DoÕOÕU YH LQFH WÕUWÕO úHNOLQGHNL ODUYDODUoHYUH\H\D\ÕOPD\DEDúODU<ÕOGD-6 nesil verebilirler. Hayat d|QJOHULVÕFDNOÕ÷D ED÷OÕRODUDN VÕFDNLNOLPOHUGH-KDIWDÕOÕPDQE|OJHOHUGH-D\GÕU %DNHU 

/DUYDODUÕ ROGXNoD KDUHNHWOLGLU YH SXSD G|QHPLQH JLUPHGHQ |QFH -7 kez deri GH÷LúWLULUOHU /DUYDODU ROJXQODúWÕNODUÕ ]DPDQ ER\ODUÕ  PP¶ ye ulaúDELOLU %DúÕ NDKYHUHQJLUHQNWHRODQODUYDJHQHOGHNLUOLEH\D]UHQNWHROXSED]HQGH\HúLO\DGDKDILI SHPEHPVL UHQNWH GH RODELOLU /DUYDO HYUH VUHNOL EHVOHQLOHUHN JHoWL÷L LoLQ HVDV ]DUDUOÕ ROGXNODUÕHYUHGLU6ÕFDNOÕ÷DED÷OÕRODUDNEXHYUH-40 hafta kadar VUHELOLU'HSRODQPÕú WDKÕOODUGD EHVOHQPHOHULQL \]H\GHQ \DSDUODU 2OJXQ ODUYDODU SXSD HYUHVLQH JHoPH ]DPDQÕ JHOGL÷LQGH LoLQGH EXOXQGXNODUÕ WQHOGHQ oÕNDUODU YH LSH÷LPVL ELU NR]D |UHUOHU /DUYDODUSXSDROXúWXUPDGDQ|QFHEHVLQND\QDNODUÕQGDQX]DNODúÕUODU(Baker, 2000).

Pupa 8-PPX]XQOX÷XQGDYHNDKYHUHQJLGLU3XSDROXúWXUDQODUYDODUoHYUHGHNL oDWODN YH \DUÕNODUÕQ LoLQGH \D GD GXYDUODUD DVÕOÕ RODUDN JHOLúLPLQL WDPDPOD\ÕS erginOHúPH\L EHNOHUler <HQL PH\GDQD JHOHQ HUJLQOHU \HQLGHQ oLIWOHúLU YH KD\DW G|QJOHri devam eder (Baker, 2000).

+D\DW G|QJVQQ HQ NÕVD SHUL\RGX  JQ HQ X]XQ SHUL\RGX  JQGU 6R÷XN LNOLPOHUGH NÕú ER\XQFD ODUYDO HYUHGH NDOÕUODU 0DUW D\Õ LoLQGH SXSD HYUHVLQL JHoLULUYHQLVDQD\ÕQGDHUJLQOHUoÕNDU%D]ÕE|OJHOHUGH\ÕOGDQHVLOYHUebilirler (Baker, 2000).

(10)

P. interpunctella¶QÕQ SROLIDJ YH NR]PRSROLW ELU ]DUDUOÕ ROGX÷X EHOLUWLOPLúWLU

+HPHQ KHPHQ EWQ DPEDU YH NXUX\HPLú GHSRODUÕQGD EXOXQDQ P. interpunctella¶QÕQ HUJLQ NDQDW DoÕNOÕ÷ÕQÕQ -20 mm olGX÷X \XPXUWDQÕQ  JQ YH\D 2 hafta arDVÕQGD DoÕOGÕ÷Õ SXS HYUHVLQLQ - JQ VUG÷ X\JXQ úDUWODUGD JHOLúPHVLQL -6 haftada WDPDPODGÕ÷Õ ELU GLúLQLQ - DGHW \XPXUWD EÕUDNWÕ÷Õ YH \ÕOGD - G|O YHUGL÷L ELOGLULOPLúWLU .H\GHU 

.XUX PH\YH JYHVL olarak bilinen P. interpunctella +bner)

/HSLGRSWHUD3\UDOLGDH  NXUX PH\YHOHULQ \DQÕ VÕUD GHSR HGLOPLú KXEXEDW oHúLWOHULQGH NXUX \HPLúOHUGH NXUXWXOPXú VHE]HOHUGH KDWWD NUNOHUGH VÕNOÕNOD J|UOHQ |QHPOL ELU ]DUDUOÕGÕU )DUNOÕ LNOLPOHUGH \DúD\DELOPHVL QHGHQL\OH GQ\D ]HULQGHNL \D\ÕOÕú DODQÕ ROGXNoD JHQLú ELU WUGU /DUYDODU EXOXQGXNODUÕ JÕGD RUWDPODUÕQGD \R÷XQ ELU úHNLOGH EHVOHQLSD÷|UHUOHU$\UÕFDoÕNDUGÕNODUÕDWÕNODUYHGH÷LúWLUGLNOHULJ|POHNYHEDúNDSVO NDOÕQWÕODUÕLOHUQQNDOLWHVLQLER]DUDN]DUDUYHULUOHU <ÕOGÕUÕPYHark., 1997).

Plodia interpunctella oR÷unlukla bX÷GD\ DPEDUODUÕQGD VW NÕVÕPODUGD YH

WDKÕOODUÕQ ELUNDo VDQWLP LoLQGH EXOXQXU Harein ve Subramanyam, 1990; Hagstrum, 2000; Nansen ve ark., 2004)/DUYDODUWDKÕOYHWDKÕOUQOHULNXUXWXOPXúPH\YHOHUNXUX HULNNXUX]PVWWR]XPÕVÕUXQXEX÷GD\XQXIÕVWÕNIÕQGÕNEDGHPFHYL]oLNRODWD úHNHUNXú\HPLEDOÕN\HPLNDWNÕVÕ]GR÷DOEHVLQPDGGHOHULYHWRKXPODUGDELVNYLYH NUDNHUoHúLWOHrinde, kurXNÕUPÕ]ÕELEHUJLELoHúLWOL\L\HFHNOHU]HULQGHEHVOHQLUOHU %DNHU 2000). P. interpunctella¶QÕQ WDKÕO UQOHULQH úHNHUOL UQOHUH HYFLO KD\YDQ \HPOHULQH FLGGLYHJHQLú|OoGH]DUDUYHUGL÷LELOGLULOPLúWLU (Nansen ve Phillips, 2004).

*HQHOOLNOH E|FHNOHU YLWDPLQOHUH SURWHLQOHUH EHOLUOL PLQHUDO WX]ODUD HQHUML LoLQ karbohLGUDWODUD LKWL\Do GX\DUODU /LSLW YLWDPLQ $ YH & JLEL EHVLQOHU ED]Õ E|FHN Wrleri LoLQ|QHPOLPROHNOOHUGLU(Hagen ve ark., 1984; Dadd, 1985).

Lipitler, E|FHN EL\RNLP\DVÕQGD HQHUML ND\QD÷Õ KRUPRQODU YH \DSÕVDO ELOHúLNOHU RODUDN DQDKWDU URO R\QDPDNWDGÕU /LSLWOHULQ E|FHN HPEUL\RJHQHVLVLQGH EDVOÕFD HQHUML ND\QD÷Õ ROGX÷X GD WHVSLW HGLOPLúWLU *LOEHUW   (QHUML ND\QD÷Õ RODUDN EHVLQVHO OLSLWOHUEHVLQVHOSURWHLQOHUGHQGDKD|QHPOLGLU$\UÕFDOLQROHLNDVLWYHOLQROHQLNDVLWJLEL \D÷ DVLWOHUL SXS HYUHVLQGHQ HUJLQH JHoLúWH |QHPOL UROOHUH VDKLSWLUOHU %L\RORMLGH HQHUML GHSRODPD WUDQVSRUW PRELOL]DV\RQ YH EL\RPHPEUDQODUÕQ \DSÕVDO ELOHúHQOHUL ROPD JLEL EWQRUJDQL]PDODUGD|QHPOLLúOHYOHULRODQ\D÷DVLWOHULQLQD]GDROVDE|FHNOHUH|]HOED]Õ J|UHYOHUL GH YDUGÕU $\UÕFD \D÷ DVLWOHUL PXPODUÕQ IHURPRQODUÕQ YH HLNRVDQRLGOHULQ EL\RVHQWH]LQGH |QF PDGGH RODUDN |QHPOL URO R\QDUODU %XQXQOD ELUOLNWH korunma

(11)

VHNUHV\RQODUÕQGD ELOHúHQ RODUDN J|UHY DOGÕNODUÕ GD ELOLQPHNWHGLU (Wakayama ve ark., 1980; Stanley-Samuelson ve arN%DúKDQ 

%|FHNOHUGH \D÷ GRNXVX LúOHY RODUDN RPXUJDOÕODUÕQ NDUDFL÷HU GRNXVXQD benzemekte YH KRUPRQDO oHYUHVHO YH E\PH LOH LOJLOL IRQNVL\RQODUda da metabolik KRPHRVWD]ÕGHYDPHWWLUPHNWHGLU<D÷GRNXVXQXQJOLNRMHQOLSLWYHSURWHLQOHULKDUHkete JHoLUHQGHSROD\DQYHVHQWH]OH\HQWHNELUKFUHWLSLQLLoHUGL÷LWHVSLWHGLOPLúWLU (Wyatt, 1980; Gold ve Dawey, 1989).

3HNoRNE|FHNWHWRWDO\D÷DVLWOHULQLQE\NELUNÕVPÕWULDoLOJOLVHUROLOHLOLúNLOLGLU <XPXUWD JHOLúLPLQGH HQHUML LKWL\DFÕQÕ NDUúÕODU, D\UÕFD ORNRPRWRU DNWLYLWHOHU LOH KLEHUQDV\RQYHJHOLúPHHYUHOHULQGHGHUROOHULROGX÷XWHVSLWHGLOPLúWLU %DúKDQ 

%X oDOÕúPD ELU GHSR ]DUDUOÕVÕ RODQ P. interpunctella SXSODUÕQÕQ \D÷ DVLGL ELOHúLPOHULQHGúNVÕFDNOÕ÷ÕQHWNLVLQLQDUDúWÕUÕOPDVÕDPDFÕ\OD\DSÕOPÕúWÕU

(12)

.$<1$.$5$ù7,50$6,

hUHWLOHQWDUÕPUQOHULYHNXUXWXOPXúJÕGDODUGDKDVRQUDNXOODQÕOPDN]HUHGHSR YHDPEDUJLEL\HUOHUGHPXKDID]DHGLOPHNWHGLU'HSRUQOHULQLQNDOLWHVLQLYHNDQWLWHVLQL HWNLOH\HQ |QHPOL ELU IDNW|U GH GHSRODQPÕú UQ ]DUDUOÕODUÕGÕU 'HSR UQOHULQH ]DUDU YHUHQELUoRNE|FHNWUEXOXQPDNWDGÕU'HSRUQOHULQLQVDNODQPDVÕVUHVLQFHKDVWDOÕN YH]DUDUOÕODUGDQPH\GDQDJHOHELOHFHNUQND\ÕSODUÕQÕQ|QOHQPHVLJHUHNLU

hONHPL]GHGHSRDPEDUYHVLORODUGD oHúLWOLNXUXPH\YHOHUKXEXEDWODUWWQOHU XQYHXQUQOHULQH]DUDUYHUHQE|FHNWUOHULQLQEL\RORMLOHUL\D\ÕOÕúODUÕYHPRUIRORMLOHUL KDNNÕQGDoHúLWOLDUDúWÕUPDODU\DSÕOPÕúWÕU

%XUVD¶GD EXOXQDQ GH÷LUPHQ YH XQ IDEULNDODUÕQGD \DSÕODQ J|]Oemler sonucu LepLGRSWHUDWDNÕPÕQÕQ 3\UDOLGDHIDPLO\DVÕQDDLWRODQLNLWUH\D\JÕQRODUDNUDVWODQPÕúWÕU (Q \R÷XQRODUDNEXOXQDQWUQ Ephestia kuehniella ROGX÷XEHOLUOHQPLúWUQODUYDYH HUJLQOHULQHKHPHQKHPHQKHUIDEULNDYHGH÷LUPHQGHUDVWODQPÕúWÕUøNLQFLRODUDNLVHNuru PH\YHJYHVLP. interpunctella WHVSLWHGLOPLúWLU%XWUQD\UÕFD%XUVD¶GDWWQYHNXUX ]POHUGHGH]DUDU \DSWÕ÷Õ ELOGLULOPLúWLUg]HOOLNOHWHPL]OL÷H|QHP YHULOPH\HQIDEULND YHGH÷LUPHQOHUGHEXWUOHULQ]DUDUODUÕQÕQDUWWÕ÷ÕGDJ|UOPúWU &RúNXQFX2004).

=DUDUOÕ ELU WUQ PFDGHOHVL LoLQ \DSÕODFDN oDOÕúPDODUGD NXOODQÕOPDN ]HUH ODERUDWXDU úDUWODUÕQGD UHWLOHELOPHVL LoLQ E|FHNOHULQ EL\RORMLN YH IL]\RORMLN |]HOOLNOHULQLQ EHVOHQPH GXUXPODUÕQÕQ YH PHWDEROLN LKWL\DoODUÕQÕQ oRN L\L ELU úHNLOGH bilinmesi gerekir (Volkoff ve ark., 1992).

%LUE|FH÷LQNDSVDGÕ÷ÕOLSLWPLNWDUÕYHWRWDOOLSLWOHULQELOHúLPLQHJLUHQ\D÷DVLWOHUL E|FH÷LQ JHOLúPH HYUHVLQH \DúÕQD YH EHVLQLQH ED÷OÕGÕU (Barlow, 1966; Moore ve Taft, 1970).

<D÷ DVLWOHULQLQ WP RUJDQL]PDODUGD ELUoRN EL\olojik IRQNVL\RQODUÕ YDUGÕU %XQODU KFUH YH RUJDQHO ]DUODUÕQÕQ \DSÕVÕQD JLUHUOHU %L\RORMLN HQHUML LoLQ GHSR YH tranVIHU PDGGHVL RODUDN NXOODQÕOÕUlar. øNLQFLO KDEHUFLOHULQ SURVWDJODQGLQOHULQ WURPERNVDQ YH O|NRWULHQ JLEL EL\RORMLN EDNÕPGDQ DNWLI ELOHúLNOer olan eikosanoidlerin |QFO PDGGHOHUL RODUDN Lú J|UUOHU %|FHNOHUGH EX LúOHYOHUH HN RODUDN PXPODUÕQ YH IHURPRQODUÕQEL\RVHQWH]LQGH|QFORODQ\D÷DVLWOHULD\QÕ]DPDQGDNRUXQPDVDOJÕODUÕQÕQ ELOHúHQOHULQLROXúWXUXUODU 6WDQOH\-Samuelson ve ark., 1988).

(LNRVDQRLGNDUERQOXDúÕUÕGR\PDPÕú \D÷DVLWOHULQGHQKRPRȖ-linolenik asit (18:3Ȧ6), arakLGRQLN DUDúLGRQLN  DVLW 20:4Ȧ6) ve eikosapentaenoik asit (20:5Ȧ3), RNVLMHQOL PHWDEROLWOHUL LoLQ NXOODQÕODQ ELU WHULP ROXS 6WDQOH\-Samuelson, 1994);

(13)

prostaglandinler, epoksieikosatrienoik asitler, hidroksieikosatetraenoik asitler, O|NRWULHQOHU OLSRNVLQOHU YH KHSRNVLOLQOHUL NDSVDPDNWDGÕU 2PXUJDOÕ YH RPXUJDVÕ] KD\YDQODUGD GDYUDQÕú UHPH YH WDúÕPD IL]\RORMLVLQGH DUDFÕ PDGGH RODUDN Lú J|UHQ eikosanoidlerin (Stanley-Samuelson,1987; Kerkhove ve ark., 1994), son zamanlarda \DSÕODQ oDOÕúPDODUGD E|FHNOHUGH EDNWHUL\HO HQIHNVL\RQODUD NDUúÕ KFUHVHO ED÷ÕúÕNOÕN \DQÕWÕQÕQ ROXúPDVÕQD GD NDWNÕGD EXOXQGXNODUÕ VDSWDQPÕúWÕU (Miller ve ark., 1991; Kerkhove ve ark., 1994  $\UÕFD HLNRVDQRLGOHULQ ELU JUXEXQX ROXúWXUDQ SURVWDJODQGLQOHULQ E|FHNOHUGH \XPXUWD EÕUDNPD GDYUDQÕúÕQÕ X\DUGÕ÷Õ PLNUREL\DO HQIHNVL\RQODUDNDUúÕED÷ÕúÕNOÕNVD÷ODGÕ÷ÕYHYFXWÕVÕVÕQÕQG]HQOHQPHVLQGH|QHPOLURO R\QDGÕ÷ÕEHOLUOHQPLúWLU (Stanley, 2000; Stanley ve ark., 2002; Stanley, 2004).

%L\RORMLNRODUDNDNWLIPDGGHOHURODQHLNRVDQRLGOHULQYHSURVWDJODQGLQOHULQ|QFO PDGGHOHULQLQ  NDUERQOX DúÕUÕ GR\PDPÕú \D÷ DVLWOHULQLQ ROXúX E|FHN IL]\RORMLVLQGH \D÷ DVLWOHULQLQ DQDOL]L LOH LOJLOL oDOÕúPDODUÕQ |QHP ND]DQPDVÕQÕ VD÷ODPÕúWÕU 6WDQOH\-6DPXHOVRQ   'DKD |QFHOHUL  NDUERQOX DúÕUÕ GR\PDPÕú \D÷ DVLWOHULQLQ NDUDVDO E|FHNOHUGH ROPDGÕ÷Õ VDQÕOÕ\RUGX (Fast, 1970). Fakat Stanley-Samuelson ve Dadd   GDKD KDVVDV NURPDWR÷UDILN WHNQLNOHU NXOODQDUDN Teleogryllus commodus,

Galleria mellonela, Tenebrio molitor, Periplaneta americana ve Anopheles stephensi

JLELGH÷LúLNRUGRODUDDLWE|FHNWUOHULQLQIRVIROLSLWIUDNVL\RQXQGDED]ÕNDUERQOXDúÕUÕ GR\PDPÕú \D÷ DVLWOHULQL VDSWDPÕúODU YH EX \D÷ DVLWOHULQLQ oR÷XQXQ E|FHN OLSLtlerinin IRVIROLSLWOHULQGH EXOXQDELOHFH÷LQL LOHUL VUPúOHUGLU *HUoHNWHQ GDKD VRQUDNL oDOÕúPDODUGD daED]ÕE|FHNWUOHULQGH-az miktarda dahi olsa - EXPDGGHOHUVDSWDQPÕúWÕU (Stanley-Samuelson, 1986; Ogg ve ark., 1993).

%|FHNOHUGH\DSÕVDORODUDNHQ|QHPOLUROVWHUROOHUR\QDU6WHUROOHUJHOLúPHGHYH GHULGH÷LúWLUPHGHHNWL]RQROXúXPX LoLQEDúODQJÕoPDWHU\DOLGLU &OD\WRQ  %|FHN IL]\RORMLVLQGH oRN |QHPOL RODQ EX VWHUROOHUL E|FHNOHU VHQWH]OH\HPH]OHU (Madariaga ve ark., 1972).

%D]Õ DúÕUÕ GR\PDPÕú \D÷ DVLWOHUL WHPHO RODUDN NDEXO HGLOLUOHU YH ED]Õ E|FHNOHU WDUDIÕQGDQVHQWH]OHQHPH]OHUEHVLQOHELUOLNWH DOÕQPDODUÕJHUHNLU 'DGG Terriere ve Grau,   %|FHNOHULQHUJLQ|QFHVL HYUHOHULQGHJHOLúPHOHULLoLQEHVLQ LoHULVLQGHDúÕUÕ GR\PDPÕú \D÷DVLWOHULQLQEXOXQPDVÕ|QHPOLGLU3HNoRNE|FHNWU QRUPDOJHOLúLPYH UHPHOHUL LoLQ \D÷ DVLWOHULQH LKWL\Do GX\DUODU 'LSWHUD RUGRVXQGDQ VLYULVLQHNOHUGH EHVLQVHO \D÷ DVLWOHULQLQ HWNLOHULQLQ DUDúWÕUÕOPDVÕ VRQXFX Oinolenik asidin VHQWH]OHQHPHGL÷L EHVLQOH DOÕQPDVÕ JHUHNWL÷L EHOLUOHQPLúWLU )DVW   Linolenik asit YH OLQROHLN DVLW E|FHNOHULQ LKWL\Do GX\GX÷X HQ |QHPOL WHPHO DúÕUÕ GR\PDPÕú \D÷

(14)

asitleridir (Dadd, 1983). /LQROHLN DVLW E|Feklerde prostaglandin sentezine de |QFON etmekedir (Stanley-Samuelson ve Loher, 1986). Linoleik ve linolenik asitler pup HYUHVLQGHQHUJLQHJHoLúWH|QHPOLUROR\QDPDNWDGÕU 'DGG Vaughn ve Louloudes (1972) de \DSWÕNODUÕ ELU oDOÕúPDGD /HSLGRSWHUD RUGRVX WUOHULQGH QRUPDO JHOLúPH YH HUJLQOHúPHJ|UOPHVLLoLQOLQROHLNYHOLQROHQLNDVLWOHULQJHUHNOLROGX÷XEHOLUOHPLúOHUGLU $\UÕFDHymenoptera ordosundan Itoplectis conquisitor (Hymenoptera:Ichneumonidae) ODUYDODUÕQÕQ HUJLQL ROXúWXUDELOPHVL LoLQ OLQROHLN DVLWH LKWL\Do GX\GX÷X ELOGLULOPLúWLU <D]JDQ   <LQH D\QÕ RUGRGDQ Pimpla turionellae WUQGH GH QRUPDO HUJLQ ROXúDELOPHVL LoLQ ODUYDO EHVLQGH OLQROHLN DVLWLQ EXOXQPDVÕ JHUHNWL÷L WHVSLW HGLOPLúWLU (Yazgan, 1981).

Lipitlerin, UHPHYHXoPDIDDOL\HWOHULQGH (Fast, 1970) YHE|FHNHPEUL\RJHQH]LVL HVQDVÕQGDWHPHOHQHUMLND\QD÷ÕROGX÷Xbilinmektedir (Gilbert, 1967). %|FHNOHUGHHQHUML ND\QDNODUÕ JHQHOOLNOH body IDW GúN VÕFDNOÕ÷D PDUX] NDOÕQGÕ÷ÕQGDNL DoOÕN VÕUDVÕQGD WNHWLOPHNWHGLU%XQXQQHGHQLQLQGúNVÕFDNOÕN PÕ\RNVDDoOÕN PÕROGX÷XQXD\ÕUPDN ]RUGXU $\UÕFD LNLVL ELUGHQ GH HWNLOL RODELOLU %|FHNOHUGH GúN VÕFDNOÕNWD EHNOHWPHGH lipit ND\QDNODUÕ GD NXOODQÕOGÕ÷Õ LoLQ D÷ÕUOÕN ND\EÕQÕQ ROGX÷X ELUoRN oDOÕúPDGD EHOLUWLOPLúWLU Aphidius colemani +\PHQRSWHUD$SKLGLLGDH LOH\DSÕODQoDOÕúPDGDHQHUML ND\QD÷ÕQÕQ ID]OD ROPDVÕ\OD GúN VÕFDNOÕ÷ÕQ ]DUDUOÕ HWNLOHUL D]DOÕUNHQ GúN VÕFDNOÕN VUHVLQFHDoOÕ÷DGD\DQÕNOÕOÕ÷ÕQDUWWÕ÷ÕJ|UOPúWU &ROLnet ve ark., 2007b).

3HN oRN E|FHN WUQGH \D÷ DVLGL ELOHúLPOHUL JHOLúPH HYUHOHULQH ED÷OÕ ROarak GH÷LúPHNWHGLU (Stanley-Samuelson ve ark., 1988, 1991). AyrÕFD VÕFDNOÕN E|FH÷LQ \DúÕ YH HúH\L HUJLQ EHVOHQPHVL YH DNWLYLWHQLQ VUHVL JLEL EL\RORMLN IDNW|UOHU GH \D÷ DVLGL ELOHúLPLQLHWNLOHPHNWHGLU (Moore, 1980; Cohen, 1990).

*HOLúPH HUJLQ E\NO÷ YH \XPXUWDGDQ oÕNPD RUDQÕ ]HULQH EHVOHQPH GLUHNW HNLOLGLUdR÷XNH]HUJLQHYUHVÕUDVÕQGDEHVOHQPH\XPXUWDUHWLPLLoLQJHUHNOL\VHGHSHN oRN E|FHN WU ODUYDO HYUH VÕUDVÕQGD GHSRODGÕNODUÕ EHVLQOHUL \XPXUWD UHWLPLQGH NXOODQPDNWDGÕU &DQJXVVX YH =XFRORWR   %|FHNOHU HUJLQ |QFHVL HYUHOHUGH HUJLQ hayatta kullanmak ]HUH EHVLQ GHSRODUODU +RXVH   (UJLQ |QFHVL HYUHGH DOÕQDQ EHVLQLQ NDOLWHVL E|FH÷LQ HUJLQ HYUHGHNL EHVLQVHO LKWL\DoODUÕQÕ HWNLOHPHNWHGLU (PUH 1988).

Bjostad ve Roelofs (

1981

¶XQ oDOÕúPDODUÕ LOH IDUNOÕ JYH WUOHULQGHNL IHURPRQ biyosentez yolu beliUOHQPH\H EDúODQPÕúWÕU )HURPRQ EL\RVHQWH]Lnin |QFHOLNOH SDOPLWLN

(15)

DVLW &  YH VWHDULN DVLW &  JLEL GR\PXú \D÷ DVLWOHULQLQ IHURPRQ EH]OHULQde UHWLOPHVLLOHEDúODGÕ÷ÕEHOLUWLOPLúWLU (Fukuzawa ve ark., 2006).

Sistematikte P. interpunctella¶QÕQ Ga yer alGÕ÷Õ /HSLGRSWHUD¶QÕQ GD LoLQGH EXOXQGX÷X \HGL WDNÕPÕQ /HSLGRSWHUD 2UWKRSWHUD 'LSWHUD +HPLSWHUD 'LFW\RSWHUD +\PHQRSWHUD  \D÷ DVLGL ELOHúLPOHULQLQ NDUúÕODúWÕUPDOÕ LQFHOHPHVL \DSÕOPÕúWÕU %X WDNÕPODUÕQ EHOLUOL RUDQODUGD JHQHOOLNOH PLULVWLN PLULVWROHLN, palmitik, palmitoleik, VWHDULN ROHLN OLQROHLN YH OLQROHQLN DVLWOHUL LoHUHQ QLFHOL÷H ED÷OÕ RODUDN IDUNOÕOÕNODU J|VWHUGLNOHULJ|UOPúWU'LSWHUDRUGRVXQDDLWWUOHUGHSDOPLWROHik asit \NVHNoranda bulunurken HemLSWHUD RUGRVXQD DLW WUOHUGH miristik asidin, Lepidoptera ordosu bireylerinde ise oleik asitin \NVHNRUDQGDEXOXQGX÷X EHOLUWLOPLúWLU 7KRPSVRQ 

P.interpunctella¶QÕQ 60 saatlik embriyonik peri\RGX VÕUDVÕQGD \XPXUWD EDúÕQD

1- ȝJ Q|WUDO OLSLW - ȝJ IRVIROLSLW WNHWLPLQLQ ROGX÷X WHVSLW HGLOPLúWLU 1|WUDO ELU lipit olan trigliserit embriyonik per\RW VÕUDVÕQGD \XPXUWD EDúÕQD - ȝJ NDWDEROL]H HGLOHUHNHQHUMLHOGHHGLOHQ|QHPOLELr lipittir. Yine embriyonik per\RWVÕUDVÕQGDVHUEHVW \D÷ DVLGL GLJOVHUit YH KLGURNDUERQ NXOODQÕPÕ DUWDUNHQ monogliserit, sterol ve sterol HVWHUOHUWHPHOGHGH÷LúPHPLúRODUDNNDOÕU<XPXUWDODUDoÕOPDGDQ|QFHYHJHQoODUYDODUGD KLGURNDUERQPLNWDUÕLNLNDWÕQDoÕNDU (Yurkiewicz ve Oelsner, 1968).

%|FHNOHULQ NDOLWDWLI \D÷ DVLGL LoHUL÷L ELUELULQH EHQ]HUVH GH NDQWLWDWLI EDNÕPGDQ ED]Õ LVWLVQDODU YDUGÕU gUQH÷LQ 'LSWHUOHUGH SDOPLWROHLN DVLW    +HPLSWHUOHUGH miristik asit (C14:0) (% 80), * PHOORQHOOD¶QÕQ HUNHN ELUH\OHULQLQ WULDoLOJOLVHURO fraksiyonunda OȦ9) eikosenoik asit (% 20) JLEL\D÷DVLWOHULGL÷HUE|FHNJUXSODUÕQD RUDQOD \D÷ DVLGL SURILOLQGH DQRUPDO GHUHFHGH \NVHN PLNWDUGD EXOXQPXúODUGÕU (Thompson, 1973; Stanley-Samuelson, 1984).

%|FHNOHULQ|]HOOLNOHIRVIROLSLWIUDNVL\RQXQGDNL\D÷DVLGLGD÷ÕOÕPÕVDELWGH÷LOGLU =LUD GH÷LúLN JHOLúLP HYUHOHUL EHVLQ YH VÕFDNOÕN JLEL oHYUHVHO IDNW|UOHU EX GD÷ÕOÕPÕ etkileyebilir. Lambremont ve ark.(1964), besinde EXOXQPD\DQ ED]Õ \D÷ DVLWOHULQLGH

Anthonomus grandis'in larva ve eUJLQOHULQGHWHVSLWHWPLúOHUGLU

.ÕOÕQoHU YH DUN ), Hemiptera ordosundan Avrupa sQHVL Eurygaster

maura LOH.ÕPÕOAelia rostrata' QÕQoHúLWOLD\ODUGD\D÷DVLGLELOHúLPLQLQDQDOL]L\DSPÕú

ve palmitoleik asidin (C  \NVHN PLNWDUGD ROGX÷Xnu (% 20-  WHVSLW HWPLúOHUGLU. $\QÕRUGRGDQYHEXE|FHNWUOHULQH\DNÕQRODQVQHEurygaster integriceps'in nimf ve HUJLQOHULQGHGHD\QÕELOHúHQ\NVHNRUDQGDEXOXQPXúWXU %Dúhan ve ark., 2002). Ancak EX\D÷DVLGLGLSWHUOHULQ )DVW YHKHPLSWHUOHUGHQBlissus leucopterus leucopterus ile Blissus iowensisLQ 6SLNH YH DUN   KHP IRVIROLSLW KHP GH WULDoilgliserol

(16)

IUDNVL\RQXQGD \NVHN PLNWDUGD EXOXQXUNHQ VQH WUQQ LQFHOHQHQ WP JHOLúLP HYUHOHULQGHGDKDoRNWULDoLOJOLVHUROIUDNVL\RQXQGD WULDoLOJOLVHUROGH-27, fosfolipitte  \NVHNGH÷HUGHROGX÷XVDSWDQPÕúWÕU

6ÕFDNOÕN E|FHNOHULQ PHWDEROLN IDDOL\HWOHULQL HWNLOH\HQ |QHPOL ELU DEL\RWLN IDNW|UGU YH E|FHNOHULQ \HU\]QGH GD÷ÕOÕú VÕQÕUODUÕQÕQ EHOLUOHQPHVLQGH GH DVÕO URO R\QDPDNWDGÕU $\UÕFD PHWDEROL]PD YLWDO DNWLYLWHOHU G|O YHULPL JHOLúPH YH JHOLúPH VUHVL, morfolojik, fizyolojik, ekolojik ve etolojik adaptasyonlar ]HULQGH GH |QHPOL HWNLOHULYDUGÕU

'úN VÕFDNOÕ÷D GD\DQDELOPH WUH WUQ \DúDGÕ÷Õ E|OJH\H JHOLúPH HYUHVLQH HúH\ WLSLQH EHVOHQPH GXUXPXQD YH GDKD |QFH EXOXQGX÷X VÕFDNOÕN GHUHFHVLQH J|UH GH÷LúHEilir. gUQH÷LQ VÕFDNOÕ÷ÕQ HWNLVL NoN YFXWOX RODQODUD J|UH E\NOHUGH GDKD ID]ODGÕU 5RPRVHUDQG6WDIIRODQR 

6ÕFDNOÕN GH÷LúPHOHUL VRQXFX RODUDN PHWDEROL]PDGD NDUúÕW GH÷LúPHOHU PH\GDQD JHWLUPHN NROD\GÕU %X JLEL ROD\ODU GD J|UOHQOHULQ JHUL\H G|QHELOLU YH JHoLFL DNÕúODUÕ ROD÷DQGÕU <DSÕGD IHQRWLSLN GH÷LúPHOHU PH\GDQD JHWLUHQOHU ise daha az bulunur ve GLNNDW oHNLFLGLUler gU Drosophila melanogaster¶GH SHWHN J|]OHUL PH\GDQD JHWLUHQ IDFHWVD\ÕVÕVÕFDNOÕNHWNLVL\OHGH÷LúLU .DQVX  'úNVÕFDNOÕNE|FHNOHULQJHOLúPH VUHVLQLX]DWÕUNHQHUJLQOHULQ\DúDPVUHVLQLNÕVDOWPDNWDGÕU %DOODOYHDUN 

6DELW YH GH÷LúNHQ VÕFDNOÕ÷ÕQ P.interpunctella¶ ya HWNLVLQLQ DUDúWÕUÕOGÕ÷Õ ELU oDOÕúPDGDHPEUL\RJHOLúLPLQLn ƒ&GH; ƒ&GHYHƒ&GHJQVUG÷ WRSODP JHOLúPH G|QHPLQLQ LVH ƒ& GH  ƒ& GH  YH ƒ& GH  JQGH WDPDPODQGÕ÷Õ EHOLUWLOPLúWLU $\UÕFD GH÷LúNHQLQ GúN VÕFDNOÕNODUD PDUX] EÕUDNÕOPDVÕ ODUYD YH HUJLQ oÕNÕúÕQÕ D\QÕ ]DPDQGD da GLúLOHULQ UHPH JFQ ROXPVX] \|QGH etkilemektedir .UQMDLFYH,OÕF 

%DúND ELU oDOÕúPDGD GLDSR]OX YH GLDpozsuz P.interpunctella ODUYDODUÕ ƒ& YH ƒ& GH \HWLúWLULOHUHN GúN VÕFDNOÕ÷D NDUúÕ WROHUDQVODUÕ WHVSLW HGLOPH\H oDOÕúÕOPÕúWÕU -ƒ&¶QLQODUYDODULoLQ|OGUFROGX÷Xƒ&GH\HWLúHQGLDSR]OXODUYDODUÕQGLDpozsuz laUYDODUD J|UH -ƒ& \H GDKD WROHUDQVOÕ ROGX÷X WHVSLW HGLOPLúWLU %X VRQXoODUD J|UH

3LQWHUSXQFWHOOD¶ QÕQ VR÷X÷D NDUúÕ WROHUDQVÕQÕQ GLDSR] LOH LOJLOL ROGX÷X J|UOPúWU

(Naeemullah ve ark., 1999).

1XUXOODKR÷OX YH .DO\RQFX  ¶ nun GúN VÕFDNOÕ÷ÕQ Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera3\UDOLGDH  SXSODUÕQÕQ WRWDO OLSLW YH WRWDO \D÷ DVLGL \]GHOHULQH HWNLOHULQL DUDúWÕ÷ÕELUoDOÕúPDGD ƒ&GHIDUNOÕVUHOHUGHEHNOHWLOHQSXSODUÕQVUH\HED÷OÕRODUDN D÷ÕUOÕNND\EÕ WRWDOOLSLWYHWRWDO\D÷DVLGL\]GHOHULQHHWNLVLLQFHOHQPLúWLU6RQXoRODUDN

(17)

GúN VÕFDNOÕ÷ÕQ G. mellonella SXSODUÕQGD, ]DPDQD ED÷OÕ olarak D÷ÕUOÕN ND\EÕ \]GHOHULQGH |QHPOL ELU DUWÕú ROGX÷X \Dú D÷ÕUOÕ÷D J|UH WRWDO OLSLW YH WRWDO \D÷ DVLGL \]GHOHULQLQD]DOGÕ÷ÕJ|UOPúWU

Galleria mellonella WUQQ EHúLQFL DOWÕQFÕ YH \HGLQFL HYUH ODUYDODUÕ LOH

SXSODUÕQÕQ \D÷ DVLGL ELOHúLPLQLQ LnFHOHQPHVL VRQXFX ELOHúLPLQ  YH  NDUERQOX \D÷ DVLWOHULQGHQ ROXúWX÷X WHVSLW HGLOPLúWLU 2OHLN YH SDOPLWLN DVLW \]GHOHULQLQ oRN \NVHN ROGX÷XOLQROHLNDVLWLQLVHoQFE\N\]GH\HVDKLSROGX÷XEXOXQPXúWXU $NWPVHN ve ark., 2000).

P. interpunctella 0ƒ&¶QLQ DOWÕQGDNL X\JXODPDODUGD HQ KDVVDV WU RODUDN WHVSLW

edilirken E. kuehniella¶QÕQ LVH HQ WROHUDQVOÕ WU ROGX÷X J|UOPúWU /RFDWHOOL YH DUN 1990).

2.1. 'úN6ÕFDNOÕ÷a KDUúÕDLUHQo

<DúDPÕQ QRUPDO RODUDN VUHJHOGL÷L VÕFDNOÕNODUD EL\RNLQHWLN VÕFDNOÕN GHQLU %|FHNOHU SRLNORWHUP KHWHURWKHUP GH÷LúNHQ VÕFDNOÕN  KD\YDQODU ROGXNODUÕQGDQ YFXW VÕFDNOÕNODUÕ oHYUH VÕFDNOÕ÷ÕQD ED÷OÕGÕU 6DELW VÕFDNOÕNOÕ KD\YDQODUGDNL JLEL Lo NLPyasal olaylarlDÕVՁUHWHELOPHVLQHNDUúÕQRUWD\DoÕNDQÕVÕELOLQHQIL]LNVHONXUDOODUDJ|UHGÕúDUÕ VDYUXOXUYHYFXWVÕFDNOÕ÷ÕoHYUHVÕFDNOÕ÷ÕLOHD\QÕG]H\HJHOLU 'HPLUVR\ 

%|FHNOHU, NÕúVR÷X÷XQGDQJ|oHWPH\DGDNÕúODPD\ROODUÕLOHNDoDELOLUYHya fazla HQHUML KDUFDPD\Õ JHUHNWLUHQ oDEDODUÕQÕ GXUGXUDUDN HNVWUHP úDUWODUGD |OP WHKOLNHVLQL atlatabilirler (Gullan ve Cranston, 1996).

%|FHNOHUGH VR÷X÷D NDUúÕ WROHUDQV VÕNOÕNOD DúÕUÕ VR÷XWPD QRNWDODUÕQD Super Cooling Point = 6&3  ED÷OÕGÕU P. interpunctella JLEL GRQPD\D WROHUDQVÕ ROPD\DQ E|FHNOHUGH /HHYHDUN1DHHPXOODKYHDUN., 1999), 6&3GúNVÕFDNOÕ÷DWROHUDQV OLPLWLQL J|VWHULU YH GRQPD\D WROHUDQVÕ ROPD\DQ E|FHNOHU 6&3 ]HUL VR÷XWPDGD |OU dR÷X GHSRODQPÕúUQ]DUDUOÕVÕ-20ƒ&LOH -10ƒ&DUDVÕQGD SCP ye sahiptir (Fields, 1992). Lee ve ark.  ƒ&GH\HWLúWLULOHQP. interpunctella ODUYDODUÕQÕQ6&3VLQL-ƒ& RODUDNEXOPXúWXU

NaeePXOODKYHDUN  ƒ&YHƒ&GH\HWLúWLULOHQGLDSR]OXYHGLDSR]VX]

P. interpunctella ODUYDODUÕQÕQ 6&P sini -ƒ& YH -ƒ& DUDOÕ÷ÕQGD ROGX÷XQX UDSor

HWPLúWLU$\UÕFDKHPGLDSR]OXKHPGLDSR]VX]ODUYDODUÕQ-ƒ&\HVDDWYH-ƒ&\H saatten daha az maruz EÕUDNÕOGÕNWDQ VRQUD   |OP RUDQÕ ROGX÷XQX J|]OHPOHPLúOHUGLU

(18)

%|FHNOHUGHGúNVÕFDNOÕ÷DGLUHQoWH Ice-Nucleating Proteinler (INPs), Thermal Hysteresis Proteinleri (THPs), Crypotectanlar (polihidrik alkoller), donmayan su PLNWDUÕQÕQ DUWPDVÕ ]DUODU YH diapoz etkilidir +HPROHQI ,13¶ OHUL VÕIÕUÕQ DOWÕQGDNL VÕFDNOÕNODUGDHNVWUDVHOOHUEX]ROXúXPXQXEDúODWPDNODJ|UHYOL\NHQ7KHUPDO+ysteresis Proteinler (THPs) HNVWUDVHOOHUEX]XQWHNUDUNULVWDOOHúPHVLQL|QOHPHNOHJ|UHYOLGLU

3ROLKLGULN DONROOHU GRQPD QRNWDVÕQÕQ GúPHVLQL VD÷ODU YH GRQPD NRQVDQWUDV\RQXQX VÕQÕUODQGÕUÕU <D÷ GRNXVX; JOLNRMHQ UH]HUYOHUL UHWLPi, oR÷X ]DPDQ ÕVÕQÕQD\DUODQPDVÕYH\DJHOLúLPLQEDúODPDVÕQGDHWNLOLGLU=DUODUPXKWHPHOHQNRUX\XFX RODUDN SUROLQ YH WUHKDOR] NXOODQÕPÕ\OD GRQPD HVQDVÕQGD NL \DSÕVDO NDUDUOÕOÕ÷Õ VD÷ODU (Storey ve Storey, 1988).

%L\RORMLNVLVWHPOHUGHGRQPDQÕQHWNLVLYFXWVÕYÕVÕQÕQGRQPDVÕúHNOLQGHNHQGLQL J|VWHULU YH |OGUF etki yapar. %|FHNOHU GúN VÕFDNOÕ÷ÕQ EX |OGUF HWNLVLQGHQ kurtulmak LoLQ LNL IDUNOÕ úHNLOGH GLUHQo J|VWHULUOHU <D YFXW VÕFDNOÕNODUÕQÕ oRN VR÷XN WXWDUDNGRQPDNWDQNXUWXOXUODU\DGDGRQPD\Õ|QOH\HQ ELUPHNDQL]PDJHOLúWLULUOHU+HU LNL VWUDWHML\L NXOODQDQ E|FHNOHUGH ELU GL]L IL]\RORMLN YH EL\RNLP\DVDO PHNDQL]PDODU PHYFXWWXU %|FHNOHU EX] \DSDQ DMDQODUÕQ GD÷ÕWÕPÕQÕ YH PLNWDUÕQÕ GH÷LúWLUHELOLUOHU 3ROLKLGULN DONRO JLEL GúN PROHNO D÷ÕUOÕNOÕ \NVHN NRQVDQWUDV\RQOX VROXWODUÕ UHWHELOLUOHU =DFKDULDVHQ 

<DQÕNR÷OX  GúNVÕFDNOÕ÷ÕQPimpla turionellae L.¶QÕQSXSDOKD\DWÕQVRQ HYUHVLQGHNL JQONJHOLúLPHYUHVLQGH GLúLYHHUNHNELUH\OHULQJOLNRMHQVHYL\HOHULQH HWNLVLQL LQFHOHPLú YH GúN VÕFDNOÕ÷D PDUX] EÕUDNÕODQ E|FHNOHUGH JOLNRMHQ VHYL\HVLQLQ GúW÷Q JOLNRMHQ VHYL\HVLQGHNL EX GúúQ GH GúN VÕFDNOÕ÷D NDUúÕ J|VWHULOHQ GLUHQFLQELUVRQXFXROGX÷XQXJ|VWHUPLúWLU

$úÕUÕVR÷XPDPHNDQL]PDVÕVX\XQNULVWDOL]DV\RQVÕFDNOÕ÷ÕQÕGúUHUHNGRQPaya WROHUDQVOÕROPD\DQWUOHUGHGRQPD\Õ|QOHU 3XOOLQYH%DOH 

'RQPD\DWROHUDQVOÕWUOHULQoRND]ÕQGDEXOXQDQVR÷XNNRUX\XFXSURWHLQOHUHULPH SHUL\RGXVÕUDVÕQGDNULVWDOL]DV\RQDNWLYLWHVLQLLQKLEHHGHUHNGRQPDWROHUDQVÕQÕDUWWÕUÕUODU (Knight ve Duman, 1986). Bu WUOHUGH D\UÕFD HNVWDVHOOOHU VÕYÕODUGD EX] ROXúXPX JHUoHNOHúLUNHQ GRQPD\Õ |QOH\HQ WUOHUGH VSHVLILN NRUX\XFX PDGGHOHU VHQWH]OHQLU (Asahina, 1969; Baust ve Rojas, 1985; Zachariaseen, 1985; Bale, 1987).

%|FHNOHULQGúNVÕFDNOÕNODUDYHGRQPD\DNDUúÕGLUHQoOHULWROHUDQVGHUHFHOHULYH DOGÕNODUÕPHWDEROLN|QOHPOHUDUD]LGHYHODERUDWXDUGDGúNVÕFDNOÕNODUDPDUX]EÕUDNÕODQ E|FHNOHULQJ|]OHQPHVLVRQXFXQGDEHOLUOHQPHNWHGLU

(19)

2.2. Diapoz

'LDSR] E|FHNOHULQ GDKD oRN NÕú VR÷X÷X ROPDN ]HUH ROXPVX] úDUWODUD NDUúÕ

korunma ve VD÷NDODELOPHOHULLoLQJHUoHNOHúWLUGLNOHULWHPHOELUIL]\RORMLNPHNDQL]PDGÕU (Wigglesworth, 1972).

Diapoz, Q|URHQGRNULQ VLVWHPOH G]HQOHQHQ YH JHQHOOLNOH IRWRSHU\RW YH\D VÕFDNOÕNWDNL GH÷LúLPOHULQ G]HQOHQPHVL LOH WHúYLN HGLOHQ IL]\ROojik bir durumdur. *HQHOOLNOH E|FHNOHU GLDSR]D JLUPHGHQ |QFH GH÷LúLPOHUH DGDSWDV\RQ LoLQ JHUHNOL RODQ GX\DUOÕELUG|QHPGHQJHoHUOHU(UJLQOHUGHGLDSR]JRQDWODUÕQJHOLúLPLQLQHUWHOHQPHVLYH enerji rezervlerinin birikimi ile ifade edilebilir (Chapman, 1998).

%|FHNOHUHNWRWHUPLNRUJDQL]PDODUGÕUdHYUHVHOIDNW|UOHU|]HOOLNOHIRWRSHUL\RWYH VÕFDNOÕNSHNoRNE|FHNWUQGHGLDSR]DQHGHQROPDNWDGÕU ,chimori ve ark., 1990).

'LDSR]E|FHNOHULQHPEUL\RODUYDSXSYH\DHUJLQROPDN]HUHWPHYUHOHULQGHQ sadece tek ELU HYUHGH J|UOU +HU ELU HYUHQLQ GLDSR]XQGD IDUNOÕ KRUPRQODU HWNLOLGLU Embriyo diapozu protein \DSÕVÕQGD ELU GLDSR] KRUPRQX\OD, larval diapozu juvenil KRUPRQ YDUOÕ÷Õ\OD pup diapozu protorasikotropik hormon (PTTH) ile ergin diapozu juvenil hormon yoklu÷XLOHPH\GDQDJHOPHNWHGLU 5LGGLIRUGYH7UXPDQ1978).

Diapoza JLUHQE|FHNOHULQE\NELUNÕVPÕPHWDEROL]PDODUÕQÕGesteklemek aPDFÕ ile trigliserit depolarlar (Beenakkers ve ark., 1981). DormaQVLQLQ EDúODQJÕFÕQGD trigliserit PLNWDUÕQGDNL DUWÕú SHN oRN E|FHN WUQGH WHVELW HGLOPLúWLU 9DOGHU Ye ark., 1969; Dortland ve Esch, 1979; Adedokun ve Denlinger, 1985).

%|FHN WUOHULQLQ ELUoR÷X GD GH÷LúLN JHOLúLP HYUHOHULQGH GLDSR]D JLUHUHN GúN VÕFDNOÕ÷DNDUúÕGLUHQoJ|VWHUHELOPH\HWHQH÷LQHVDKLptir (Lenartowicz ve Niemirko, 1968; Danks, 1978; Jayanth ve Nagarkatti, 1985  %X |]HOOLNWHQ \DUDUODQÕODUDN GúN VÕFDNOÕNWD EHNOHWPH \|QWHPL LOH HOGH HGLOHQ \HWHUOL VD\ÕGDNL SDUD]LWRLG LOH HWNLQ ELU PFDGHOHJHUoHNOHúWLULOHELOLU ,FKLPRULYHDUN 1990).

6X.D\EÕ

Su kD\EÕE|FHNOHUGHGRQPD\DNDUúÕJHOLútirilPLúELUEDúNDNRUXQPD\|QWHPLGLU 6X PLNWDUÕQGDNL |QHPOL GH÷LúLNOLNOHU de GLDSR]XQ NDUDNWHULVWLN |]HOOL÷LGLU %DXVW YH Rojas, 1985).

6ÕYÕKDOGHNLVXEL\RORMLNVLVWHPOHULQNXOODQGÕ÷ÕWHPHOo|]HOWLGLUƒ&¶QLQDOWÕQGD EX]KDOLQGHNLVXEL\RORMLNROD\ODULoLQX\JXQGH÷LOGLU'úNVÕFDNOÕ÷DGLUHQoHVQDVÕQGD

(20)

VX ND\EÕ LOH QLVSL VX LoHUL÷L E\N RUDQGD GH÷LúHUHN E|FH÷LQ NÕú úDUWODUÕQD GD\DQPDVÕ VD÷ODQÕU =DFKDULDVVHQ %|FHNOHUD÷ÕUNÕúúDUWODUÕER\XQFDGRQDELOHQVX\D NDUúÕ GRQPD\DQ VX PLNWDUÕ RUDQÕQÕ DUWÕUPDN LoLQ WRSODP YFXW VX\X LoHUL÷LQGH ELU D]DOPD \DSDUODU%XGDKFUHOHUGHNLGRQPD\ÕD]DOWÕUYHVR÷X÷DNDUúÕGLUHQFLDUWÕUÕU 6WRUH\YH Storey, 1988). 'úN VÕFDNOÕ÷D NDUúÕ NRUXQPDGD VX KDFminde azalmalar meydana gelirken, JOLVHURO JLEL GúN PROHNO D÷ÕUOÕNOÕ ELOHúLNOHU VX\D ED÷OÕ RODUDN DUWPDNWDGÕU (Storey ve ark., 1981; Storey, 1983).

%|FHNOHUGHGúNVÕFDNOÕ÷DGLUHQoLoVÕYÕODUÕQRVPRWLNEDVÕQFÕQÕDUWÕUDQVXND\EÕ GHKLGUDV\RQ LOHVD÷ODQÕU%XGXUXPDNULSWREL\Rsis denir (Kansu, 1988). Dehidrasyon, E|FHNOHUGHVR÷X÷DNDUúÕGLUHQFLDUWWÕUPDNWDGÕU 3D\QH 

6DOW   YH 6¡PPH   VR÷X÷D NDUúÕ GD\DQÕNOÕOÕ÷ÕQ VD÷ODQDELOPHVL LoLQ GHKLGUDV\RQXQoRN\R÷XQROPDVÕJHUHNWL÷LQLEHOLUWPLúOHUGLU

'RQPD\DWROHUDQVOÕELUWURODQEurosta solidaginis )LWFK ¶LQODUYDVÕQGDGúN VÕFDNOÕNVÕUDVÕQGDJOLVHUROVHQWH]LQLQde KLGUDV\RQDED÷OÕRODUDNEDúODGÕ÷ÕELOLQPHNWHGLU (Baust, 1982).

Galleria mellonella SXSODUÕQD GúN VÕFDNOÕ÷ÕQ HWNLOHULQLQ DUDúWÕUÕOGÕ÷Õ ELU

oDOÕúPDGD X\JXODPD VUHVLQLQ X]DPDVÕ LOH SXSODUÕQ D÷ÕUOÕN ND\EÕQÕQ DUWWÕ÷Õ WHVSLW HGLOPLúWLU 1XUXOODKR÷OX 

2.4. 6R÷XN.RUX\XFX3ROLDONROOHUYH.DUERKLGUDWODU

'úN VÕFDNOÕ÷D NDUúÕ GL÷HU ELU GD\DQPD \|QWHPL E|FHNOHULQ YFXW VÕYÕODUÕQGD |QHPOL PLNWDUGD JOLVHUin, sorbitol ve eritrol gibi NRUX\XFX PDGGHOHULQ EXOXQPDVÕGÕU %XQODUKHUELULELUPLNWDUKLGURNVLOJUXEXLoHUHQSROLKLGULWDONROOHUJOLVHUROVRUELWROYH GLVDNNDULWWUHKDOR]RODUDNEHOLUOHQPLúWLU*OLVHUROKDUHNHWVL]OL÷LQEDúODPDVÕ\ODGRNXODUGD J|UOPH\H EDúODU 5RPRVHUYH6WDIIRODQR 

'úNVÕFDNOÕ÷DPDUX]NDODQE|FHNOHUGHVR÷XNNRUX\XFXRODUDNGúNPROHNO D÷ÕUOÕNOÕPROHNOOHULELULNWLUGLNOHULELOLQPHNWHGLU 'úNPROHNOD÷ÕUOÕNOÕNDUERKLGUDWODU µ&U\RSURWHFWDQW¶ DGÕ DOWÕQGD WRSODQÕUODU +DQVHQ980; Ring, 1982). Gliserol en fazla EXOXQDQ VR÷XN NRUX\XFX FU\RSURWHFWDQW  ROXS KHP GRQPD\D WROHUDQVOÕ KHPde GRQPDGDQ NDoÕQDQ WUOHU WDUDIÕQGDQ NXOODQÕOPDNWDGÕU 'DQNV Hansen, 1980; Ring,1981, 1982; Miller, 1982).

&U\RSURWHFWDQODU LoHULVLQGH SROLROOHU |QHPOL ELU \HU WXWDU Poliollerin sentezi E|FHNOHUGH \D÷ GRNXVXQGD PH\GDQD JHOLU 3ROLRO VHQWH]LQLQ EDúODPDVÕ E|FHN WUOHULQH

(21)

J|UHGH÷LúLNOLNOHUJ|VWHULU6ÕFDNOÕNIRWRSHUL\RGQHPYHEHVLQX\JXQOX÷XJLELoHYUHVHO úDUWODUÕQ\DQÕQGDKRUPRQODUE\PHYHGLDSR]GDSROLROVHQWH]LLOHLOLúNLOLGLU 6WRUH\YH Storey, 1988).

3HN oRN E|FHN WUQGH SROLRO VHQWH]LQL EDúODWDQ PHNDQL]PD GúN VÕFDNOÕNWÕU. dRNVD\ÕGDODERUDWXDUoDOÕúPDODUÕQGDQSROLROVHQWH]LQLEDúODWDQGúNVÕFDNOÕ÷ÕQ-5 ƒ& DUDVÕQGD GH÷LúWL÷L EHOLUOHQPLúWLU Storey, 1983; Rojas ve ark., 1983; Storey ve Storey, 1983; Nordin ve ark., 1984).

6L\DK SLULQo E|FH÷L Scotinophara lurida (Heteroptera:Pentatomidae) HUJLQOHULQGH (NLP .DVÕP YH $UDOÕN D\ODUÕQGD VÕUDVÕ\OD JOXNR] JOLVHURO YH WUHKDOR] PLNWDUODUÕQGD DUWÕú ROGX÷X WHVSLW HGLOPLúWLU g]HOOLNOH WUHKDOR]XQ GRQPD\D NDUúÕ HWNLOL ROGX÷XYHGLDSR]HVQDVÕQGDUHPHSURJUDPÕQÕQMXYHQLOKRUPRQNRQWURODOWÕQGDROGX÷X EHOLUOHQPLúWLU &KRYHDUN 

(XURVWDVROLGDJLQLV¶ GHVR÷X÷DGD\DQPDVÕUDVÕQGDJOLVHURO YHVRUELWROQROXúDQ

(22)

3. MATERYAL VE METOT

3.1gUQHNOHULQ(OGHHGLOPHVL

.XUX ]PGHQ DOÕQDQ Plodia interpunctella SXSODUÕ LoLQGH SROHQ EXOXQDQ NDYDQR]XQLoHULVLQHDNWDUÕOGÕYHNDYDQR]XQD÷]ÕWOEHQW beziyle NDSDWÕODUDN-JQ “ƒ&¶GH YH “ ED÷ÕO QHPGH HWY LoHULVLQGH JHOLúPH\H EÕUDNÕOGÕ %X VUH LoHrisLQGH SXSODU JHOLúHUHN HUJLQ IHUWOHUH G|QúW YH HUJLQOHU oLIWOHúLS \XPXUWD EÕUDNWÕNWDQ ELU VUH VRQUD |OG (UJLQ oÕNÕúÕQÕ L]OH\HQ “ JQ VRQXQGD RUWD\D oÕNDQ ODUYDODU“JQLoHULVLQGHSXSROXúWXUPD\DEDúODGÕ2OXúDQSXSODUGDQEDúNDELUSROHQ NDYDQR]XQDDOÕQDUDNEXúHNLOGHQHVLOUHWLOGL

Polen kavanozundan DOÕQDQ Plodia interpunctella ODUYDODUÕ LoLQGH EH\D] SHOU ND÷ÕWODU EXOXQDQ NDSODUD DNWDUÕOÕS SXS HYUHOHULQH JHoPHOHUL EHNOHQPLúWLU 7D]H SXSODU GLNNDWOLFHD\UÕODUDNKHUELULELUH\LKWLYDHGHQJUXSODUROXúWXUXOPXúWXU3XSNR]DODUÕ GLNNDWOLFH oÕNDUÕODQ SXSODUGDQ ROXúDQ JUXSODU WDUWÕODUDN LON \Dú D÷ÕUOÕN WDUWÕPODUÕ DOÕQPÕúWÕU%XQODUGDQoJUXSNRQWUROJUXEXROPDN]HUHNORURIRUPPHWDQRO YY  o|]HOWLVL LoHUHQ NDSDNOÕ NoN WSOHUH NRQXODUDN DQDOL] LúOHPOHULQH NDGDU GHULQ GRQGXUXFXGDVDNODQPÕúWÕU'HQH\JUXSODUÕQÕROXúWXUPDNLoLQYHJQVUHLOH GúN VÕFDNOÕNWD EHNOHWLOPHN ]HUH KHU ELUL o WHNUDUGDQ ROXúDQ o D\UÕ JUXSODPD \DSÕOPÕúWÕU %XQODU LoL SHOU ND÷ÕGÕ LOH NDSODQPÕú SODVWLN EDUGDNODUD D÷Õ]ODUÕ WHN NDW WOEent bezi ile NDSDWÕODUDNƒ&¶\HD\DUODQPÕúVR÷XWXFX\DNRQXOPXúWXUYH JQON VUHOHU VRQXQGD VR÷XWXFXGDQ DOÕQDQ GHQH\ JUXSODUÕ WHNUDU WDUWÕODUDN GúN VÕFDNOÕN VRQUDVÕ \Dú D÷ÕUOÕN GH÷HUOHUL HOGH HGLOPLúWLU %X GH÷HUOHU GúN VÕFDNOÕN X\JXODPDVÕQGDQ |QFHNL D÷ÕUOÕNODUÕQGDQ oÕNDUÕODUDN GúN VÕFDNOÕN X\JXODPDVÕ VÕUDVÕQGDNL D÷ÕUOÕN ND\ÕSODUÕ WHVSLW HGLOPLúWLU %WQ GHQH\ JUXSODUÕ D\UÕ D\UÕ NoN úLúHOHUH NRQXOPXú YH NORURIRUPPHWDQRO NDUÕúÕPÕ LODYH HGLOPLúWLU %X JUXSODUGD DQDOL] LúOHPOHULQHNDGDUGHULQGRQGXUXFXGDVDNODQPÕúWÕU

<D÷(NVWUDNsiyonu

$OÕQDQ QXPXQHOHULQ \D÷ DVLGL ELOHúLPLQL WHVSLW HWPHN LoLQ |QFHOLNOH QXPXQHOHUGHNL \D÷ODUÕQ RUJDQLN o|]FOHUH DNWDUÕOPDVÕ JHUHNPHNWHGLU %XQXQ LoLQ QXPXQHOHU )ROFK YH DUN  ¶ QÕQ \|QWHPOHULQGHQ \DUDUODQDUDN  ELQ GHYLUGN¶\D D\DUOÕ KRPRMHQL]DW|UGH NORURIRUPPHWDQRO NDUÕúÕPÕQGD YY   KRPRMHQOHúWLULOGL YH QXPXQHOHUPHWLOOHúWLULOLQFH\HNDGDUGHHS-IUHH]H¶GHVDNODQGÕ

(23)

<D÷$VLWOHULQLQ0HWLO(VWHUOHULQLQ+D]ÕUODQPDVÕ

Deep-IUHH]H¶GHQ DOÕQDQ QXPXQHOHULQ o|]FV URWDU\ HYDSRUDW|UGH XoXUXOGX. <D÷|UQeklerinden 0.1-0.2 gram kadar baloQODUDDNWDUÕOGÕYHEDORQODUVRNVOHWDSDUDWÕQD \HUOHúWLULOGL <D÷ |UQHNOHULQLQ ]HUOHULQH  PO ¶OLN 1D2+ o|]HOWLVLQGHQ HNOHQHUHN VDEXQODúPDQÕQ JHUoHNOHúPHVL LoLQ  GDNLND ND\QDWÕOGÕ 6DEXQODúPD WDPDPODQGÕNWDQ sonra 5 ml %14 BF3-PHWDQRO NRPSOHNVL HNOHQGL YH  GDNLND ND\QDWÕOGÕ 'DKD VRQUD

NDUÕúÕP ]HULQH  PO Q-KHSWDQ HNOHQGL YH ELU GDNLND ND\QDPD\D EÕUDNÕOGÕ .D\QDPD WDPDPODQGÕNWDQ VRQUD  PO GR\PXú 1D&O o|]HOWLVLQGHQ HNOHQGL %DORQODU L\LFH NDUÕúWÕUÕOGÕNWDQ VRQUD ID] D\UÕPÕ LoLQ D\ÕUPD KXQLOHULQH DNWDUÕOGÕ YH -10 dakika EHNOHQGL %X VUH VRQXQGD alttaki VXOX NÕVÕP DWÕOGÕNWDQ VRQUD VWWHNL VDUÕ UHQNOL ID] YLDOOHUHDNWDUÕODrak analiz edilinceye kadar -20 ƒ&¶GHVDNODQGÕ ,XSDF 1979).

*D].URPRWR÷UDILN$QDOL]ler

Gaz kromatografik analizler HP (Hewlett Packard) Agilent marka 7890 model FID (Flame Ionization Detector, DOHY L\RQODúWÕUPD GHGHNW|U  GHGHNW|UO YH RWRPDWLN LQMHNW|UO JD] NURPDWRJUDI LOH JHUoHNOHúWLULOPLúWLU $QDOL]OHUGH  PHWUHOLN +3±88 kapiller NRORQ NXOODQÕOPÕúWÕU *D] NURPDWRJUDIWD LQMHNW|U EOR÷X VÕFDNOÕ÷Õ  Û& GHGHNW|U EOR÷X VÕFDNOÕ÷Õ ise 24 Û& RODUDN D\DUODQPÕúWÕU .RORQD VÕFDNOÕN SURJUDPÕ X\JXODQPÕúWÕU.RORQXQEDúODQJÕoVÕFDNOÕ÷Õ 50 Û&RODUDND\DUODQPÕú%XVÕFDNOÕNWD10 dakika bekletiOPLúGDKDVRQUDGDNLNDGDÛ&DUWDUDN240 Û&¶\HXODúÕOPÕúWÕU%XVÕFDNOÕNWD da 10 GDNLND EHNOHWLOPLúWLU *D] NURPDWRJUDIÕQ JD] DNÕú KÕ]ODUÕ KLGURMHQ  POdak., kuru hava: 300 ml/dak. ve WDúÕ\ÕFÕ JD] RODUDN NXOODQÕODQ KHO\XP13.38 psi. olarak D\DUODQPÕúWÕU.

<D÷ DVLWL PHWLO HVWHUOHUL VWDQGDUWODUÕ RODUDN 6XSHUFR ¶OLN PL[ NXOODQÕOPÕúWÕU. 6WDQGDUWODUÕQ ED÷ÕO DOÕNRQPD ]DPDQODUÕ UHODWLYH UHWDQWLRQ WLPH  JD] NURPDWRJUDIL FLKD]ÕQGDD\QÕNRúXOODUGDDQDOL]OHQHUHNEHOLUOHQPLúWLU%|\OHFHHOGHHGLOHQVWDQGDUWODUÕQ bD÷ÕO DOÕNRQPD ]DPDQODUÕ \DUGÕPÕ LOH NURPDWRJUDPODUGDNL SLNOHUH NDUúÕOÕN JHOHQ \D÷ DVLWOHULEHOLUOHQPLúWLUhoWHNUDUOÕRODUDNHOGHHGLOHQNURPDWRJUDPODUGDNLSLNOHULQ\]GH DODQODUÕQÕQ DULWPHWLN RUWDODPDODUÕ YH VWDQGDUW VDSPDODUÕ KHVDSODQDUDN WDEORODU KDOLQde YHULOPLúWir.

(24)

$5$ù7,50$6218d/$5,9(7$57,ù0$

$UDúWÕUPD6RQXoODUÕ

'úN VÕFDNOÕ÷D PDUX] EÕUDNÕODQ Plodia interpunctella SXSODUÕQÕQ \D÷ DVLGL ELOHúLPi JD] NURPDWR÷UDILN \|QWHPOH WHVSLW HGLOPLúWLU <D÷ DVLGL ELOHúLPlerLQGHNL \D÷ DVLGL\]GHOHULNRQWUROJUXEXQXQ\D÷DVLGL\]GHOHULLOHNDUúÕODúWÕUÕODUDNGúNVÕFDNOÕ÷ÕQ SXSODUÕQ \D÷ DVLGL \]GHOHULQH HWNLOHUL DUDúWÕUÕOPÕúWÕU )DUNOÕ VUHOHUH ED÷OÕ RODUDN pXSODUGDPH\GDQD JHOHQGH÷LúLNOLNOHUWHVSLWHGLOPLúWLU .RQWUROYHGHQH\JUXSODUÕQD ait \D÷DVLGLELOHúLPOHULdL]HOJH ¶GH YHD÷ÕUOÕNND\EÕPLNWDUODUÕ dL]HOJH ¶GH YHULOPLúWLU

'úN VÕFDNOÕNWD EHNOHWPH LúOHPL VRQXQGD P. interpunctella SXSODUÕQGD uygulama VUHVLQH ED÷OÕ RODUDN DUWDQ PLNWDUGD D÷ÕUOÕN ND\EÕ WHVSLW HGLOPLúWLU $÷ÕUOÕN ND\EÕ VX ND\EÕ  GHQH\ JUXSODUÕQÕQ GúN VÕFDNOÕN PXDPHOHVL |QFHVLQGH EHOLUOHQHQ D÷ÕUOÕNODUÕQGDQ X\JXODPD VRQUDVÕQGDNL D÷ÕUOÕNODUÕQÕQ oÕNDUÕOPDVÕ LOH HOGH HGLOPLúWLU (Q fazla a÷ÕUOÕN ND\EÕ  JQON GHQH\ JUXSODUÕQGD J|UOPúWU 'HQH\ JUXSODUÕQGDNL D÷ÕUOÕNND\EÕPLNWDUÕYHJQONGúNVÕFDNOÕN  X\JXODPDVÕQGDVÕUDVÕ\OD %10.6, %16.4 ve %23.3 RODUDNWHVSLWHGLOPLúWLU

Gaz kromotografik analizler sonucu C12:0 ile C2 DUDVÕQGD  DGHW \D÷ DVLWL EHOLUOHQPLúWHVSLWHGLOHQ\D÷DVLWOHULQLQVLVWHPDWLNLVLPOHULdL]HOJH¶WHYHULOPLúWLU<D÷ DVLGL ELOHúLPOHULQGH HQ E\N \]GHOHU VÕUDVÕ\OD ROHLN DVLW &Ȧ , palmitik asit (C16:0) ve OLQROHLNDVLWH &Ȧ DLWEXOXQPXúWXU

Kontrol grubXQXQ\D÷DVLGLELOHúLPLQGH07 LOHROHLNDVLWHQE\N\]GH\H VDKLSWLU %XQX VÕUDVÕ\OD  ile palmitik asit ve %14,51 ile linoleik asit takip HWPHNWHGLU(QGúNRUDQGDEXOXQDQODXULNDVLW (C12:0) iVHVDGHFHJQONSHUyotta tHVSLWHGLOPLúWLU/DXULNDVLWPLNWDUÕEDNÕPÕQGDQNRQWUROYHGL÷HUGHQH\ JUXSODUÕLOH JQONGHQH\JUXEX DUDVÕQGDLVWDWLVWLNVHORODUDNIDUNOÕOÕNYDUGÕU

 JQON GHQH\ JUXEXQGD PLULVWLN DVLW &  \]GHVLQGH ELU PLNWDU DUWÕú olurken YHJQONJUXSODUGDNLGH÷HUler NRQWUROJUXEXQDEHQ]HUOLNJ|VWHUPHNWHGLU 3HQWDGHVLOLNDVLW & NRQWUROJUXEXQDRUDQODDUWPÕúHQID]OD\]GHJQONJUXSWD EXOXQPXúVUHX]DGÕNoDRUDQD]DOPÕúWÕUdDOÕúPDJHQHOLQGHLNLQFLE\N\]GH\HVDKLS olan palmitik (C16:0) asit \]GHVL NRQWURO JUXEXQD J|UH D]DOPÕú YH JUXSODU DUDVÕQGD LVWDWLVWLNVHO RODUDN IDUNOÕOÕN EXOXQPXúWXU Stearik asit (C18:0), % 3,23¶ON RUDQOD HQ ID]OD  JQON X\JXODPDGD EXOXQXUNHQ NRQWURO JUXEXQD J|UH DUWÕú ROPDVÕQD UD÷PHQ GL÷HUGHQH\gruplarÕQda dDKDGúNGH÷HUOHUHVDKLSWLU

(25)

.RQWUROJUXEXQDJ|UHPLNWDUÕD]DODQHikosanoik asit (C20:0)JQONSHUyotta HQ GúN GH÷HUH VDKLSWLU +HQHLNRVDQRLN DVLW &   JQON JUXSWD HQ \NVHN GH÷HUH VDKLSNHQ  YH  JQON JUXSODUGD RUDQ D]DOPÕúWÕU %ehenik asit (C22:0) PLNWDUÕ LVH  JQON GúN VÕFDNOÕN X\JXODPDODUÕQGD DUWDUNHQ  JQON X\JXODPDODUGD HQ GúN GH÷HUH VDKLSWLU. Miristoleik asite (C14:1) VDGHFH  JQON per\RWWDUDVWODQPÕúNRQWUROYHGL÷HUJUXSODUDJ|UHLVWDWLVWLNVHOIDUNOÕOÕNWHVSLWHGLOPLúWLU 3DOPLWROHLNDVLW & RUDQÕQGD NRQWUROJUXEXQDJ|UHD]DOPDROPXúJUXSODUDUDVÕQGD YH NRQWURO JUXEXQD J|UH GHQH\ JUXSODUÕQGD LVWDWLVWLNVHO IDUNOÕOÕN DQODPOÕ EXOXQPXúWXU. Oleik asit &Ȧ \]GHVL HQ ID]OD  JQON JUXSWD   ROPDN ]HUH DUWÕú J|VWHUPHNWHGLU  JQON Seryotta DUWDQ HLNRVHQRLN DVLW &  \]GHVL GL÷HU gruplarda azalmakla beraber istatistiksel bir IDUNOÕOÕNJ|UOPHPHNWHGLU

KRQWUROJUXEXQDRUDQODOLQROHLNDVLWPLNWDUÕQGDVUH\HED÷OÕRODUDNDUWÕúROPDNOD birlikte 10, 2YHJQONSHUyotlar DUDVÕQGD\DNÕQGH÷HUOHUHsahiptir. Ȗ-Linolenik asit &Ȧ \]GHVLNRQWUROJUXEXQDJ|UHDUWDUNHQĮ-OLQROHQLNDVLW &Ȧ) PLNWDUODUÕ EDNÕPÕQGDQJUXSODUDUDVÕQGD |QHPOLELUIDUNOÕOÕN WHVSLWHGLOPHPLúWLU(ikosadienoik asit (C20:2 Ȧ) ve Eikosatrienoik asit (C20:3Ȧ-&Ȧ  PLNWDUÕ HQ \NVHN GH÷HUH  JQONSHU\RWWDXODúPÕúWÕUEikosapentaenoik asit (C20:5Ȧ) \]GHVL GHQH\JUXSODUÕQGD koQWURO JUXEXQD J|UH LVWDWLVWLNVHO ELU IDUN WHVSLW HGLOPHPLúWLU Behenik asit (C22:2) \]GHVLise JQONSHU\RWWDJ|UOPHPLúJQONJUXSWDPLNWDUÕNRQWURO grubuna J|UHDUWDUNHQJQON peryotta D]DOPDJ|]OHQPLúWLU.

Plodia interpunctella SXSXQXQ \D÷ DVLGL ELOHúLPLQGH PLULVWLN DVLW HLNRVDQRLN

DVLW \]GHOHULQGH LVWDWLVWLNVHO DoÕGDQ |QHPOL ELU IDUNOÕOÕN WHVSLW HGLOPHPLúWLU Sޓ  %XQDNDUúÕOÕNNRQWUROYHJQONGHQH\JUXSODUÕQGDODurik asit, palmitik asit, PLULVWROHLN DVLW YH SDOPLWROHLN DVLW \]GHOHUL DUDVÕQGD LVWDWLVWLNVHO RODUDN |QHPOL IDUNOÕOÕNODU WHVSLW HGLOPLWLU Sޒ  3DOPLWLN DVLW \]GHVL NRQWURO JUXEXQD J|UH  JQON GHQH\ JUXEXQGD D]DOPÕú DQFDN GúN VÕFDNOÕNWD EHNOHWPH VUHVLQH SDUDOHO RODUDN DUWPÕúWÕU 3DOPLWROHLN DVLW \]GHVL LVH EWQ GHQH\ JUXSODUÕQGD NRQWURO JUXEXQD J|UHGDKDGúNVHYL\HGHWHVSLWHGLOPLúWLU

'R\PXú \D÷ DVLWOeUL \]GHVL X\JXODPD VUHVLQH ED÷OÕ RODUDN DUWPÕú HQ GúN \]GH  JQON GHQH\ grubunda buOXQPXúWXU    JQON JUXSWD EX GH÷HU %25,95 iken eQ\NVHN\]GHLVHJQONGHQH\JUXEXQDDLWWLU (%27,24).

'R\PDPÕú \D÷DVLWOHUL \]desi kontrol grubunda YHJQON JUXSODUGD VÕUD\OD   YH  RODUDN WHVSLW HGLOPLúWLU 'R\PDPÕú \D÷

(26)

DVLWOHUL \]GHVL HQ GúN  JQON X\JXODPDGD HQ \NVHN  JQON X\JXODPDGD WHVSLWHGLOPLúWLU

$úÕUÕGR\PDPÕú\D÷DVLWOHUi PLNWDUÕHQE\NRUDQD (%18,58) JQONJUXSWD XODúÕUNHQHQGúNRUDQ(%17,21) JQONGeQH\JUXEXQGDWHVSLWHGLOPLúWLU.ontrol grubuna (%16,79) oranla DúÕUÕGR\PDPÕú\D÷DVLGL\]GHOHULQGHoGHQH\JUXEXQGD da DUWÕúJ|]OHQPLúWLU

.RQWURO  JQ  JQ YH  JQ VUH\OH GúN VÕFDNOÕk uygulanan deney gruplarÕQD DLW ȈS)$ 08)$ YH 38)$ GH÷HUOHUL dL]HOJH   YH ¶ te, NDUúÕODúWÕUPDODUÕLVHdL]HOJH ¶WHJUDILNKDOLQGHYHULOPLúWLU

(OGH HGLOHQ VRQXoODUD J|UH \D÷ DVLGL ELOHúLPOHULQGH JUXSODU DUDVÕQGD PLNWDU RODUDNDUWÕúODUYHD]DOPDODUROPDVÕQDUD÷PHQ|QHPOLIDUNODUWHVSLWHGLOPHPLúWLU.RQWURO JUXEX YH IDUNOÕ VUHOHUGH GúN VÕFDNOÕN X\JXODQDQ GHQH\ JUXSODUÕQGD \D÷ DVLGL ELOHúLPOHULQLQ HQ E\N \]GHOHULQL ROXúWXUDQ \D÷ DVLWOHUL D\QÕGÕU *UXSODU DUDVÕQGD \DOQÕ]FD NDQWLWDWLI IDUNOÕOÕNODU WHVSLW HGLOPLúWLU /DXULN DVLWLQ VDGHFH  JQON JUXSWD EXOXQSEHKHQLNDVLWLQGHJQONJUXSWDEXOXQPDPDVÕGÕúÕQGDGL÷HU\D÷DVLGLoHúLWOHUL EWQJUXSODUGDNDOLWDWLIRODUDND\QÕGÕU

(27)

dL]HOJH.RQWUROYHGHQH\JUXSODUÕQÕQ\D÷DVLGLNRPSR]LV\RQODUÕ  <$ö$6ø7/(5ø Kontrol grubu (OrަW“6+) 10 JQ (Ortަ“6+) 20 JQ (Ortަ“6+) 30 JQ (Ortަ“6+) C12:0ވ “D 0.06“2b “D “a C14:0 “ 0.44“10 0.37“.05 0.35“4 C15:0 “ 0.10“2 0.09“1 0.08“1 C16:0 “D “.16b 21.7“22cb “DF C17:0 0.12“3 0.13“1 0.13“1 0.15“3 C18:0 2.68“46 2.90“9 3.23“41 2.92“31 C20:0 0.18“4 0.05“5 0.13“5 0.13“05 C21:0 0.10“2 0.05“4 0.09“2 “.07 C22:0 0.07“7 “0 “0 0.08“1

CȦ “a 0.09“3b “a “a

CȦ 3.73“16a 2.69“24b 1.81“7c 2.75“32b CȦ 0.08“2 0.13“1 0.09“1 0.07“6 CȦ “.35 “.08 53.44“38 “.02 CȦ 0.12“1 0.16“1 0.12“3 0.11“3 CȦ 14.51“49 “.38 15.67“64 15.35“94 &Ȧ 0.14“ 0.16“3 0.17“4 0.15“ &Ȧ 0.58“4 0.56“6 0.58“6 0.53“3 CȦ 0.98“55 1.17“41 “0 0.77“69 CȦ “ 0.13“12 0.24“5 0.12“7 CȦ 0.18“8 0.16“13 0.19“16 “ CȦ 0.19“3 0.20“1 0.21“1 0.21“1 CȦ 0.14“12 “ 0.17“2 0.07“11 Ȉ6)$* 27.3“ “ 25.95“9 27.24“96 Ȉ08)$* “ “ 55.47“29 55.54“74 Ȉ38)$* “ “ 18.58“23 17.21“34 ަ 'H÷HUOHUoWHNUDUÕQRUWDODPDVÕGÕU.

ވ7PVDWÕUGDD\QÕKDUILNDSVD\DQGH÷HUler birbirinden farklÕGH÷LOGLU 3ޓ

*SFA: Saturated fatty acids; MUFA: Monounsaturated fatty acids; PUFA: Polyunsaturated fatty acids S.H. :Standart Hata

(28)

dL]HOJH'úNVÕFDNOÕNX\JXODPDVÕVRQXFXVUH\HED÷OÕD÷ÕUOÕNND\EÕRUDQODUÕ

*Q øON$÷ÕUOÕN g) ވ Son $÷ÕUOÕN g) ވ $÷ÕUOÕN.D\EÕ g) ވ $÷ÕUOÕNND\EÕ 

*QON 0,0987 0,0882 0,0105 10,6

*QON 0,0961 0,0803 0,0158 16,4

*QON 0,1093 0,0838 0,0255 23,3

ވ'H÷HUOHUoWHNUDUÕQRUWDODPDVÕGÕU.

dL]HOJH.3 GC analizler sonucu P.interpunctella¶QÕQ NRPSR]LV\RQXQGDEXOXQDQ\D÷DVLWOHUL .DUERQVD\ÕVÕ <D\JÕQYH6LVWHPDWLN$GÕ

C12:0 Laurik asit (Dodekanoik asit) C14:0 Miristik asit (Tetradekanoik asit) C15:0 Pentadesilik asit (Pentadekanoik asit) C16:0 Palmitik asit (Hekzadekanoik asit) C17:0 Margarik asit (Heptadekanoik asit) C18:0 Stearik asit (Oktadekanoik asit) C20:0 Arakidik asit (Eikosanoik sait)

C21:0 Heneikosanoik asit

C22:0 Behenik asit

CȦ Miristoleik asit (cis-9-Tetradekanoik asit) CȦ Palmitoleik asit (cis-9-Hekzadekanoik asit) CȦ Margaroleik asit (cis-10-Heptadekanoik asit) CȦ Oleik asit (cis-9-Oktadekanoik asit)

CȦ Gadoleik asit (cis-11-Eikonsanoik asit) CȦ Linoleik asit (cis-9,12-Oktadekadienoik asit)

CȦ /LQROHQLNDVLW Į-linolenik asit.ALA) (cis-9,12,15-Oktadekatrienoik asit) CȦ Ȗ-Linolenik asit (cis-6-9-12- Oktadekatrienoik asit)

CȦ cis-11,14-Eikosadienoik asit CȦ cis-8,11,14-Eikosatrienoik asit CȦ cis-11,14,17- Eikosatrienoik asit

CȦ EPA (cis-5,8,11,14,17-Eikosapentoenoik asit) CȦ cis-13,16-Dokosadienoik asit

(29)

Kontrol grubu

27,39 56,01 16,79 ɇ^&;йͿ ɇDh&;йͿ ɇWh&;йͿ ùHNLO.RQWUROJUXEXQDDLWȈ6)$08)$YH38)$GH÷HUOHUL

10 gün

24,67 57,65 17,68 ɇ^&;йͿ ɇDh&;йͿ ɇWh&;йͿ

(30)

20 gün

25,95 55,47 18,58 ɇ^&;йͿ ɇDh&;йͿ ɇWh&;йͿ

ùHNLO. 2JQONJUXSODUD ait Ȉ6)$08)$YH38)$GH÷HUOHUL

30 gün

27,24 55,54 17,21 ɇ^&;йͿ ɇDh&;йͿ ɇWh&;йͿ

(31)

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Kontrol grubu 10 gün 20 gün 30 gün % ɇ^&;йͿ ɇDh&;йͿ ɇWh&;йͿ

ùHNLO4.5. Kontrol grubu, 10, 20 ve JQONJUXSODUD DLWȈ6)$08)$YH38)$ GH÷HUOHULQLQNDUúÕODúWÕUÕOPDVÕ

(32)

7DUWÕúPD

)DUNOÕ VUHOHUGH GúN VÕFDNOÕN X\JXODPDVÕ VRQXFXQGD P. interpunctella SXSODUÕQGDVUH\HED÷OÕRODUDNDUWDQPLNWDUGDD÷ÕUOÕNND\EÕWHVSLWHGLOPLúROXSEXVRQXo GDKD |QFH \DSÕOPÕú EHQ]HU oDOÕúPDODUOD GD X\JXQOXN J|Vtermektedir (NuruOODKR÷OX YH Aksoylar, 1997; 1XUXOODKR÷OX 1XUXOODKR÷OXYH.DO\RQFX).

(OGH HGLOHQ VRQXoODUD J|UH NRQWURO JUXEX YH GúN VÕFDNOÕN X\JXODQDQ GHQH\ JUXSODUÕQÕQ\D÷DVLGLELOHúLPOHULQGHHQE\N\]GH\HROHLNDVLWLNLQFLE\N\]Geye SDOPLWLN DVLW YH oQF E\N \]GH\H LVH OLQROHLN DVLWLQ VDKLS ROGX÷X J|UOPú EX VRQXoODU GDKD |QFH EX WUQ IDUNOÕ HYUHOHULQLQ LQFHOHQGL÷L oDOÕúPDODUGa elde edilen VRQXoODUOD X\JXQOXNJ|VWHUPLúWLU 6HYHQhVWQHUYHDUN).

<DSÕODQ oDOÕúPDODUGD D÷ÕUOÕN ND\EÕQÕQ GúN VÕFDNOÕ÷D NDUúÕ NRUXQPDGD |QHPOL ELU IDNW|U ROGX÷X WHVSLW HGLOPLú 6WRUH\  &DQQRQ  1XUXOODKR÷OX YH $NVR\ODU   GúN VÕFDNOÕ÷D PDUX] EÕUDNÕODQ WUOHUGH JOLVHURO /HIHYere ve ark., 1989), etilen glikol ve hexitol (Baust, 1982b), glukoz (Lenatrowicz ve Niemierko,   VRUELWRO &KXUFKLOO YH 6WRUH\   YH WUHKDOR] 7DQQR   PLNWDUODUÕQÕQ |QHPOL|OoGHDUWWÕ÷ÕJ|]OHQPLúWLU %D]ÕWUOHUGHVSHVLILNSURWHLQPLNWDUÕVR÷XNWDNDOPD VUHVLQHED÷OÕRODUDNGH÷LúPHktedir (Ichimori ve ark., 1990).

%|FHNOHUGH GúN VÕFDNOÕNWD EHNOHWPHGH OLSLG ND\QDNODUÕ GD NXOODQÕOGÕ÷Õ LoLQ D÷ÕUOÕN ND\EÕQÕQ ROGX÷X ELUoRN oDOÕúPDGD EHOLUWLOPLúWLU Aphidius colemani +\PHQRSWHUD$SKLGLLGDH  LOH \DSÕODQ oDOÕúPDGD HQHUML ND\QD÷ÕQÕQ ID]OD ROPDVÕ\OD GúNVÕFDNOÕ÷ÕQ]DUDUOÕHWNLOHULD]DOÕUNHQGúNVÕFDNOÕNVUHVLQFHDoOÕ÷DGD\DQÕNOÕOÕ÷ÕQ DUWGÕ÷ÕJ|UOPúWU &ROLHQWYHDUNE 

.DO\RQFX YH $NVR\ODU   D]DODQ VÕFDNOÕ÷D YH VUH\H ED÷OÕ RODUDN Pimpla

turionellae GLúL Sup ve erginleriQGH D÷ÕUOÕN ND\EÕQÕQ DUWWÕ÷ÕQÕ YH \Dú D÷ÕUOÕ÷Õ ID]OD RODQ

SXSODUÕQGúNVÕFDNOÕ÷DNDUúÕGDKDID]ODGLUHQoJ|VWHUGL÷LQLVDSWDPÕúODUGÕU

Galleria mellonella SXSODUÕ ]HULQGH \DSÕODQ GúN VÕFDNOÕN oDOÕúPDODUÕQGD

ƒ&¶GH EHNOHWLOHQ SXSODUGD EHNOHWPH VUHVLQLQ DUWPDVÕ D÷ÕUOÕN ND\EÕQÕQ DUWPDVÕQD VHEHS ROPXúWXU 1XUXOODKR÷OX   8\JXODPD VUHVLQH SDUDOHO RODUDN DUWDQ D÷ÕUOÕN ND\EÕQÕQ E|FHNOHUGH GúN VÕFDNOÕ÷D NDUúÕ GLUHQFLQ DUWPDVÕQGD |QHPOL URO R\QDGÕ÷Õ GúQOPHNWHGLU.

dHúLWOLRUGRODUDDLWE|FHNWUOHULLOH\DSÕODQoDOÕúPDODUGD\D÷DVLGLELOHúLPOHULQL genel olarak 10- NDUERQOX \D÷ DVLWOHULQLQ ROXúWXUGX÷X WHVSLW HGLOPLúWLU 7KRPSVRQ

(33)

1973). %XoDOÕúPDGDGDPlodia interpunctella SXSODUÕQÕQ*&DQDOL]OHULVRQXFX C12:0 ve &DUDVÕQGDDGHW\D÷DVLGLWHVSLWHGLOPLúWLU

%|FHNOHUGH \D÷ DVLGL ELOHúLPL VÕFDNOÕN GH÷LúLNOLNOHULQH ED÷OÕ RODUDN IDUNOÕOÕN J|VWHUPHNWHGLU%LUoDOÕúPDVRQXFX\D÷DVLWOHULQLQGR\PXúOXNGHUHFHVLLOHVÕFDNOÕNDUWÕúÕ DUDVÕQGD ELU LOLúNL ROGX÷X WHVSLW HGLOPLúWLU <NVHN VÕFDNOÕNODU GR\PXú \D÷ DVLWOHULQLQ GúNVÕFDNOÕNODULVHGR\PDPÕú\D÷DVLWOHULQLQDUWÕúÕQDQHGHQROPDNWDGÕU +RXVHYHDUN 1958).

'RQPD\D WROHUDQVOÕ Eurosta solidaginis YH GRQPD\D WROHUDQV J|VWHUPH\HQ

Epiblema scudderiana WUOHULQLQNÕúOD\DQODUYDODUÕQÕQ\D÷DVLGLLoHUL÷LYHPHWDEROL]PDVÕ

LOHLOJLOLHQ]LPOHULQDUDúWÕUÕOGÕ÷ÕoDOÕúPDGD LNLWUGHGHNÕúPHYVLPLQGHGR\PDPÕú\D÷ DVLWOHUL PLNWDUÕQÕQ DUWWÕ÷Õ WHVSLW HGLOPLúWLU 9FXW VÕYÕODUÕQÕQ DNÕúNDQOÕ÷ÕQÕQ VD÷ODQPDVÕ LoLQ JHOLúWL÷L GúQOHQ GHSR OLSLW SURILOLQGHNL EX GH÷LúLkliklerin, E|FH÷LQ GúN VÕFDNOÕ÷DNDUúÕGLUHQoPHWDEROL]PDVÕQGD|QHPOLUROR\QDGÕ÷ÕQÕJ|VWHUPHNWHGLU -RDQLVVH ve Storey, 1996).

8]XQVUHOLGúNVÕFDNOÕNX\JXODPDVÕQÕQOLSLG PHWDEROL]PDVՁ]HULQGH|QHPOL HWNLOHULROPDNWDGÕUGalleria mellonella SXSODUÕQÕQYHJQVUHLOHƒ&¶GH EHNOHWLOPHVL VRQXFX WRWDO OLSLW YH WRWDO \D÷ DVLGL PLNWDUODUÕQÕQ VUH\H ED÷OÕ RODUDN D]DOGÕ÷Õ YH  JQON X\JXODPDGD WRWDO OLSLGH J|UH WRWDO \D÷ DVLGL \]GHVLQLQ GL÷HU X\JXODPDJUXSODUÕ YHNRQWUROJUXEXQDJ|UH |QHPOLGHUHFHGHGúNROGX÷XEXOXQPXúWXU (NuruOODKR÷OXYH.DO\RQFX 

Diapozsuz Pyrrhocoris apterus (Heteroptera:Pyrrhocoridae) HUJLQOHULQGHVR÷X÷D DOÕúWÕUPD\|QWHPLLOHYHYFXWVX\XPLNWDUÕYHRNVLMHQWNHWLPLQGHD]DOPDQÕQKHPROHQI RVPRODOLWHVLQGH DUWÕúÕQ OLQROHLN DVLW RUDQÕQGDNL DUWÕúD NDUúÕQ ROHLN DVLW RUDQÕQGD D]DOPDQÕQ IRVIRWLGLONROLQOHUGHNL D]DOPDQÕQ ROPDVÕ JLEL ED]Õ IL]\RORMLN GH÷LúLNOLNOHULQ PH\GDQD JHOGL÷L EHOLUOHQPLúWLU $úÕUÕ VR÷XPD QRNWDVÕQGD GúPHQLQ VRQXFX RODUDN buz ROXúXPXQXQ D]DOWÕOPDVÕ VSHVLILN NÕú SROLROOHULQLQ VHQWH]L YH ELULNWLULOPHVL PHPEUDQ IRVIROLSLWOHULQGHSDOPLWLNRUDQÕQGDNLDUWÕúYHKHPROHQIWH1DYH.NRQVDQWUDV\RQODUÕQÕQ G]HQOHQPHVLJLELROD\ODUÕQGDVR÷X÷DDOÕúPDDúDPDVÕQGDJHUoHNOHúWL÷LWHVSLWHGLOPLúWLU âFDODWKDYHDUN002a).

Culex pipiens LOH \DSÕODQ ELU oDOÕúPDGD WUQ WP HYUHOHULQLQ \D÷ DVLGL

ELOHúLPLQLQ E\N ELU NÕVPÕQÕQ SDOPLWLN SDOPLWROHLN ROHLN YH OLQROHLN DVLWOHUGHQ me\GDQDJHOGL÷LJ|UOPúWU $NWPVHNYH$WHú 

'úN VÕFDNOÕ÷ÕQ Dibrachys boarmiae (Walker) (Hymenoptera:Pteromalidae) GLúLSXSODUÕQÕQWRWDO\D÷DVLGLELOHúLPLQHHWNLOHULQLQDUDúWÕUÕOGÕ÷ÕoDOÕúPDGDYHJQ

(34)

VUH\OH  ƒ&¶ GH EHNOHWLOHQ GLúL SXSODUÕQ \D÷ DVLGL ELOHúLPOHULQGH GR\PXú \D÷ DVLWOHULQLQDUWWÕ÷ÕJ|]OHQPLúWLU $NWPVHNYHDUN997).

%X oDOÕúPDGD GD NRQWURO JUXEXQGD QRUPDO úDUWOUGD \HWLúHQ SXSODUÕQ \D÷ DVLGL ELOHúLPLQHEHQ]HUVRQXoODUHOGHHGLOPLúGúNVÕFDNOÕNWDEHNOHWPHVRQXFXVUH\HED÷OÕ olarak GR\PXú \D÷ DVLWOHUL \]GHVL DUWDUNHQGR\PDPÕú \D÷DVLWOHUL \]GHVLQLQD]DOGÕ÷Õ tHVSLWHGLOPLúWLU

8\JXODQDQ GúN VÕFDNOÕN GHUHFHOHULQLQ \DQÕQGD X\JXODPD VUHVLGH E|FHNOHU ]HULQGH HWNLOLGLU Pannolis flammea HUJLQOHUL SXSWDQ oÕNDU oÕNPD] ƒ&¶ GH - JQ WXWXOPXúYHX\JXODPDVUHVLDUWWÕNoDHUJLQOHULQ\DúDPVUHOHULQLQD]DOGÕ÷ÕJ|UOPúWU (Leather, 1990).

'úNVÕFDNOÕNVWUHVLoDOÕúPDODUÕQGDGDOJDOÕGúNVÕFDNOÕNX\JXODPDVÕQÕQoHúLWOL IL]\RORMLNG]HQOHPHOHUHQHGHQROGX÷XELOLQPHNWDGLU6WUHVúDUWODUÕVHUEHVWDPLQRDVLWOHU JLEL GRQPD\D NDUúÕ NRUX\XFX PROHNOOHULQ VHQWH]LQL EDúODWÕFÕ HWNL \DSPDNWDGÕU Parazitoid Aphidius colemoni 9LHUHFN ¶HGDOJDOÕGúN VÕFDNOÕNUHMLPLX\JXODQPÕúYH daimi +4ƒ& X\JXODPDVÕ LOH NDUúÕODúWÕUÕOPÕúWÕU 'DOJDOÕ GúN VÕFDNOÕN X\JXODPDVÕ VRQUDVÕQGDparazLWRLG\DúDPRUDQÕQÕQGDKD\NVHNROGX÷XEXOXQPXúWXU'DOJDOÕVÕFDNOÕN X\JXODPDVÕ QRUPDO PHWDEROLN DNWLYLWHOHULQ SHUL\RGLN RODUDN UHDNWLYH ROPDVÕQÕ YH JHOLúPHLoLQJHUHNOLúDUWODUÕQJHULND]DQÕPÕQÕWHPLQHWPHNWHGLU &ROLHQWYHDUND 

Bactrocera olea 'LSWHUD  HUNHN YH GLúLOHUL ]HULQGH DQL VR÷XWPD oDOÕúPDODUÕ

\DSÕOPÕúWÕU /DERUDWXDUGD \HWLúWLULOHQ HUJLQOHU ƒ&¶ GHQ  VDDWOL÷LQH -ƒ&¶ \H DOÕQGÕ÷ÕQGD¶L\DúDPÕúWÕU%XQDNDUúÕOÕNƒ&LOHƒ&¶de 2 saat bekletildikten sonra -6.50ƒ&¶ \H DOÕQDUDN  VDDW EHNOHWLOHQOHULQ \DúDPD RUDQÕ  YH ¶ \H oÕNPÕúWÕU (Koveos, 2001). Dohino ve ark. (1999), laboratuarda \HWLúWLULOPLú3LQWHUSXQFWHOOD¶QÕQ WPHYUHOHULQLQ (yumurta, larva, pup ve ergin) -18 C ye 1.5 -VDDWPDUX]EÕUDNÕOGÕ÷ÕQGD |OGNOHULQLJ|UPúOHUGLU.

6R÷XJD DOÕúPÕú ve diyapozlu P. interpunctella ODUYDODUÕQÕ NRQWURO HWPHN LoLQ JYHQLOLU ELU WDKÕO VDNODPD \|QHWLP WHNQL÷L KHQ] JHOLúWLULOPHPLúWLU 'HSRODQPÕú WDKÕO ]DUDUOÕODUÕQÕQ NRQWURO LoLQ GúN VÕFDNOÕN NXOODQÕPÕ, NLP\DVDO ROPD\DQ E|FHN NRQWURO PHWRGODUÕ DUDVÕQGD FD]LS ELU NRQWURO PHWRGX KDOLQH Jelmektedir (Fields, 1992; Longstaff, 1994; Arthur ve Johnson, 1995; Maier ve ark., 1997; Wilcke ve Cannon, 2002).

(35)

6218d/$59(g1(5ø/(5

'úN VÕFDNOÕ÷D ED÷OÕ RODUDN PH\GDQD JHOHQ GH÷LúLNOLNOHULQ E|FHNOHULQ GúN VÕFDNOÕ÷D NDUúÕ ELU GLUHQo PHWDEROL]PDVÕ ROGX÷X GúQOHELOLU 2OXúDQ EX GH÷LúLPOHU E|FHNOHULQPHWDEROL]PDODUÕQÕQYHLoRUWDPÕQÕQoHYUHúDUWODUÕQDNDUúÕRSWLPXPVHYL\H\H JHWLULOPHVLDoÕVÕQGDQ|QHPOLGLU

%X oDOÕúPD VRQXFXQGD  JQH NDGDU GúN VÕFDNOÕNWD EHNOHWPHQLQ P.

interpunctella¶QÕQOLSLGPHWDEROL]PDVÕQÕROXPVX]HWNLOHPHGL÷LSXSODUÕQGúNVÕFDNOÕ÷D

NDUúÕ FHYDS RODUDN \D÷ DVLGL ELOHúLPOHULQL GH÷LúWLUHUHN YH VX ND\EÕ LOH DGDSWDV\RQ VD÷ODGÕNODUÕDQODúÕOPÕúWÕU

%|FHNOHUGH \D÷ DVLGL ELOHúLPOHULQLQ YH GúN VÕFDNOÕ÷D NDUúÕ WHSNLOHULQLQ biliQPHVL EL\RORMLN PFDGHOH YH\D ELOLPVHO DUDúWÕUPDODUGD NXOODQÕODFDN RODQ WUOHULQ ODERUDWXDU úDUWODUÕQGD UHWLOHELOPHVL DoÕVÕQGDQ ROGXNoD |QHPOLGLU 'úN VÕFDNOÕ÷ÕQ VUH\H ED÷OÕ RODUDN FDQOÕODUÕQ IL]\RORMLN YH EL\RNLP\DVDO ED]Õ |]HOOLNOHULQLQ GH÷LúPHVLQHQHGHQROGX÷XELOLQPHNWHGLU2OXPVX]KHUKDQJLELUHWNL\HQHGHQROPDPDN LoLQX\JXQEHNOHWPHVUHOHULQLQWHVSLWHGLOPHVLJHUHNLU

(36)

KAYNAKLAR

Adedokun, T.A. and Denlinger, D.L., 1985, Metabolic reserves associated with pupal diapause in the flesh fly Sarcophaga crassipalpis, J. Insect Physiol., 3, 229-234. $NWPVHN $ YH $WHú $  Culex pipiens 'LSWHUDFXOLFLGDH ¶in larva, pup ve

HUJLQOHULQLQ\D÷DVLGLELOHúLPOHUL6HOoXNhQLYHUVLWHVL)HQ-HGHEL\DW)DNOWHVL)HQ

Dergisi, 13, 72-78.

ANWPVHN$1XUXOODKR÷OX=h. ve Kalyoncu, L., 'úNVÕFDNOÕ÷ÕQDibrachys

boarmiae :DONHU  +\PHQRSWHUD3\WHURPDOLGDH  GLúL SXSODUÕQÕQ \D÷ DVLGL

ELOHúLPLQHHWNLOHUL7U-RI=RRORJ\-227.

$NWPVHN A., 1XUXOODKR÷OX =8 YH .DO\RQFX / 2000, Galleria mellonella (L.) /HSLGRSWHUD3\UDOLGDH ODUYDYHSXSXQXQ \D÷DVLGLELOHúLPL 6HOoXNhQLYHUVLWHVL

)HQHGHEL\DW)DNOWHVL)HQGHUJLVL17, 29-32.

Arthur, F.H. and Johnson, H.L., 1995, Development of aeration plans based on weather data: a model for management of corn stored in Georgia, American Entomologist, 41, 241±246.

Asahina, E.,1969, Frost resistance in insects, Adv. Insect Physiol., 6, 1-49.

Baker, J., 2000, The Problem; Indian meal moths, http://impofalaska.homestead.com/files/indian_meal_moth.html

Bale, J.S., 1987, Insect cold-hardiness: freezing and supercooling an ecophysiological perspective, J. Insect Physiol., 33(12), 899-908.

Ballal, C.R., Sping, S.P., Jalali, S.K. and Kumar, P., 1989, Cold tolerance of coccons of

allorhogas pyralophagus (Hymenoptera:Braconidae), Entomophaga, 34(4),

463-468.

Barlow, J.S., 1966, Effects of diet on the composition of body fat in Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Nature, 212, 1478-1479.

%DúKDQ0(ffect of various diets on the total lipit compositions the black cricket

Melanogrillus desertus Pall. Tr. J. Of Zoology, 20, 376-379.

%DúKDQ07KHGLVWULEXWLRQLQOLSLWFODVVHVRIIDWW\DFLGVELRV\QWKHVL]HGE\WKH black cricket. Melanogryllus desertus Pall. (Orthoptera:GryllidaH  7UN Entomoloji Dergisi, 22(2), 93-99.

%DúKDQ 0 $NEDú + YH <XUGDNRo . , Phospholipid and triacylglyserol fatty acid composition of major life stages of sun pest, Eurygaster integriceps (Heteroptera:Scutelleridae), Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 132B, 375-380.

Baust, J.G., 1982, Protective agents: regulation of synthesis, Cryo-Letters., 3, 318. Baust, J.G., 1982b, Enviromental triggers to cold hardening, Comp. Biochem. Physiol.,

73(A), 563-670.

Baust, J.G. and Rojas, R.R., 1985, Review-insect cold hardiness: facts and fancy, J. Insect Physiol., 31(10), 755-759.

Beenakers, A.M.T., Van Der Horst, D.S. and Van Marrewjik, W.J.A., 1981, Role of lipids in energy metabolisP ,Q µ(QHUJ\ PHWDEROLVP LQ ,QVHFW¶ HGE\ 'RZQHU R.G.H.), Plenum pres, New York, 53-100.

Bjostad, L.B. andRoelofs, W.L., 1981, Sex pheromone biosynthesis from radiolebeled fatty acids in the redbanded leafroller moth, J. Biol. Chem., 256, 7936-7940. Cangussu, J.A. and Zucolotto, F.S., 1992, Nutritional value and selection of different

diets by edult Ceratitis capitita flies (Diptera:Tephritidae). J. Insect Physiol., 38(7), 485-491.

Cannon, R.J.C., 1986, Effects of ingestion of liquids on the cold tolerance of an antartic mite, J. Insect Physiol., 32(11), 955-961.

Referanslar

Benzer Belgeler

NDUúÕOÕ÷ÕQGD GDKD NDOLWHOL KL]PHW WDOHS HGHFHN GXUXPD JHOPHVL \DQL ELOLQoOHQPHVL JLEL QHGHQOHUOH VDGHFH KXNXND X\JXQOXN GH÷LO ND\QDNODUÕQ YHULPOL HWNLQ YH WXWXPOX

In this paper, we perform inference attacks with different genomic data models, including a first-order Markov model based on pairwise LD, multiple high-order Markov models built on

Sporcuların “WADA (Dünya Dopingle Mücadele Ajansı) internet sitesi” (BilgiDüzeyi4) hakkındaki bilgi düzeylerinde daha önce doping testine girmiĢ olan

‹nternet üzerinde yer alan sanal al›flverifl sitelerinin kullan›m oran›nda- ki art›flla ve genifl bant aral›¤›ndaki ‹n- ternet ba¤lant›lar›n

Heterotopik gebelikte ekstrauterin gebelik oda¤› ço¤unlukla bir adet olmas›na karfl›n, literatürde bir tüpte iki gestasyonel sak veya her bir tüpte birer gestas- yonel

$GVRUSVL\RQOX ÕVÕ SRPSDODUÕ JQHú YH DWÕN HQHUML ND\QDNODUÕ EDúWD ROPDN ]HUH \HQLOHQHELOLU HQHUML ND\QDNOÕ oDOÕúPDODUOD VRQ ]DPDQODUGD ]HULQGH

%LU \HUOHúLP ELULPLQLQ NXUXOGX÷X \HULQ VX ND\QDNODUÕ GHQL] DUD]L \DSÕVÕ RUPDQ PDGHQ ND\QDNODUÕ LNOLP JLEL GR÷DO XQVXUODUÕ GR÷DO DOW\DSÕ\Õ EQ\HVLQGH EXOXQGXUGX÷X VRV\DO

In this algorithm, we represent the set of feasible mode assignments for the DTCTP-B by X0 , and introduce an index t to the notation to indicate the values at iteration t, such as xt