A NOTE ON THE SKELETONS FROM KUMTEPE IN
THE VICINITY OF TROY
Muzaffer Süleyman Şenyürek, M. A., Ph. D.
Assistant Professor of Anthropology, University of Ankara
In Kumtepe, excavated in 1934 by Dr. Hamit Koşay and Mr. Jerome Sperling t, remains of four skeletons were encountered in the older of the two exsting cuitural strata 2. These skeletons were studied by Professor Şevket Aziz Kansu 3. In his paper Professor Kansu
des-cribes only one calva (skeleton No. 2) and for the other skull fragments he says (op. cit. , p. 573): "tous les autres Ğtant tres fragmentĞs, leur reconstitition meme partielle Ğtait impossible".
During the course of an investigation on these skeletons for another study, I noticed that some of the unpublished cranial fragments could yield some information and I considered it worthwhile to reexamine these skulls. In this brief note I shall dwell on the calva and on some long bones enabling us to calculate the stature. Those wishing to get information on other details should consult prof. Kansu's paper (1937). Kumtepe I, corresponding to the Chaleolithic period, is subdivided into levels a, b, and c. Of these Level Ia is the oldest and k the newest. The levels to which the skeletons belong have been indicated below :
Cultural Level Skeletons
la Nos. 3 and 4
Ib No. 1
I c No. 2
Now we can examine these skeletons in chronological order, from the earliest toward the latest.
SKELETON No. 3
The preserved parts of this calva are seen in Figure 1. This ske-leton, representing an adult, belongs, as also stated- by Prof. Kansu (1937), to a female. The photograph of the skull in norma verticalis
Hamit Koşay and Jerome Sperling. Troad'da dört yerleşme yeri. İstanbul 1936. 2 The first cultural stratum of Kumtepe, to which the Skeletons belong, is at least as early as Troy I. According to the excavators (op. cit., p. 50) Kumtepe la and Ib are even older than Troy I. On the other hand, Kumtepe Il corresponds to Troy IV.
3 Şevket Aziz Kansu : Kumtepe neolitik kemikleri üzerinde antropolojik tetkik. Etude anthropologique sur les ossements de Kumtepe (Troade). Belleten, No. II, pp. 557-569, 570-582, 1937.
A NOTE ON THE SKELETONS FROM KUMTEPE 301
shows that it is dolichocephalic. Maximum skull length is 196 mm. That is, the skull is very long. As the right side of the calva is missing, the maximum skull width could not be measured accurately. The esti-mated maximum width calculated from the left half of the calva is
140 mm. This gives a cranial index of 71.4, i. e. , the skull is dolicho-cephalic. The minimum frontal diameter is 99 mm.
As can be seen from the picture, the bones of this skull are con-siderably thick. The brow ridges (arcus superciliaris) are weak. The slope of the forehead is of submedium degree. The frontal bosses (tubera frontalia) are consiclerably strong. The mastoid process is very small.
The maximum length of the left femur of this skeleton is 417
mm 4. According to Pearson's formula 5 this gives a stature of 153.95
cm. The maximum lengths of both the right and left radius is 222 mm.
This yields a stature of 155.43 cm. according to Pearson's formula 6.
As it is a woman that is being dealt with she can be considered of medium stature. This calva represents an individual of the big-headed Eurafrican type.
SKELETON No. 4
This individual is represented by some cranial fragments. I resto-red the posterior portion of the skull. Figure 2 shows the posterior portion of the skull from norma verticalis. The small size of the mas-toid process on a preserved piece of the temporal bone and the rela-tive thinness of the long bones indicate that this skull belongs to an adult female 7. As the anterior portion of the skull is missing, the maximum skull length cannot be measured. The maximum skull width measured on the preserved portions of the right and left parietal bones is merely 125 mm. This width is very narrow. Since the parietal bones are incomplete (Fig. 2), I consider this width as being somewhat less than the actual skull breadth. On the other hand, the biasteric width of the occipital bone between the two asterion points is 99 mm. That is, the os occipitale is very narrow. The biasteric diameter and the width measured on the parietal bones suggest that a dolichocephalic individual is being dealt with here. The appearance of the skull in norma verticalis is also in favor of its being dolichocephalic.
The maximum length of the left radius is 212 mm. The stature calculated from this according to Pearson's formula ( = 81.224 -i-3.343 radius) is 152.09 em. , that is, this skeleton also represents a
4 The tong bones and skull No. 2 studied by Kansu (1937) have been remeasu-red by this writer.
Female = 72.844 -I- 1.945 femur (R. Martin : Lehrbuch der Anthropologie. Vol. 2, p. 1071, 1928).
6 Female = 81.224 -F. 3.343 radius (R. Martin : op. cit , p. 1071).
302 MUZAFFER SÜLEYMAN ŞENYÜREK
woman of medium stature. In fact this figure is nearer the lower bo-undary of medium category accepted for females.
As the skull is incomplete, it is difficult to determine whether it belongs to the. Mediterranean race or to the Eurafrican type. As the skull bones are relatively thick, however, I consider its belonging to the Eurafrican type more probable.
SKELETON No. 1
This individual is represented by some cranial fragments. The portion of the calva restored from these fragments is shown in figures 3 and 4. The mastoid process is larger than those of individuals 3 and 4 but smaller than that of skull 2. Though the skull bones are relatively thick, it is probable that, as also stated by Professor Kansu (1937), it belongs to a female.
The maximum length that could be taken on the calva is 185 mm. But as the glabella region is missing it is probable that the actual length was about 5 mm. longer than this. The maximum skull width cannot be measured accurately. The estimated skull width is 145 mm. This yields with the measured skull length (185 mm.) a cranial index of 78.37, which is mesocephalic. If the skull length is taken as 190 mm., the cranial index (76.31) is stili mesocephalic. This skull appears to be mesocephalic. But as the length and width of the calva cannot be mea-sured exactly, nothing definite can be said in this regard. The fore-head slope is of medium degree. The frontal bosses (tubera frontalia) show a submedium development. A lambdoid flattening is observed in the occipital region, but there is no plano-occipital flattening.
As for the racial type to which this skull belongs, it will be safer to reserve judgment on this point at the moment.
SKELETON No. 2
This is the skull that was published by Professor Kansu (Figure 5). It represents a young individual in his twenties. Professor Kansu (1937) attributes this skull to a female individual. But the fact that muscle markings are strong, the brow ridges are above average development, the mastoid process is larger than those of other skeletons from this site and the fact that the supramastoid crest is strongly developed indicate that it is a male and not a female that is being dealt with here. The measurements. I have taken on this calva are shown below :
Glabello-occipital length 179 mm.
Maximum width 8 145?
8 The maximum width falls on the broken part of the calva (See: Fig. 5 and
Resim 1 — Kumtepe No. 3 kafatasının yukarıdan görünüşü. F. = Alın kemiği. O. =Kafa kemiği. Ok, sutura sagittalis istikametini göstermektedir. Figure 1 — The skull of Kumtepe No. 3 in norma verticalis. F. = Frontal bone. O. = Occipital bone.
Arrow shows the direction c,f sutura sagittalis.
Resim 2 — Kumtepe No. 4 kafatasının arka kısmı- nın yukarıdan görünüşü, P = duvar kemiği. o = kafa
kemiği. Ok, sutura sagittalis istikametini göstermektedir.
Figure 2 — The posterior portion of the skull of
Kıımtepe No. 4 in norma verticalis. p=parietal
bone. o = occipital bone. Arrow shows the direction of sutura sagittalis.
Resim 3 — Kıımtepe No. 1 kafatasının yukarıdan görünüşü.
Figure 3 — The Skull of Kumtepe No. 1 in norma verticalis.
Resim 4 — Kumtepe No. 1 kafatasının
Figure 4 — The skull of Kumtepe No. 1 in norma lateralis.
Resim 5 — The Kumtepe No. 2 kafaasının
Figure 5 — The skull of Kumtepe No. 2 in norma lateralis.
A NOTE ON THE SKELETONS FROM KUMTEPE 303
Basion-bregma height 9 136 ?
Porion- bregma height 116 ?
Minimum frontal diameter 96
Cranial index 81.00
Basion-bregma height- length index 70.39
Basion-bregma height- breadth index 93.79
Porion-bregma height-length index 64.80
Porion-bregma height- breadth index 80.00
Fronto-parietal index 66.20
This cal va is brachycephalic. The basion-bregma height-length index is orthocephalic, and the height-breadth index is metriocephalic. The height-length index is hypsicephalic and the auricular-height-bread th index is metriocephalic. Fronto- parietal index is metriometop.
The development of the brow ridges are above average. Forehead slope is of medium degree. The mastoid process is of medium or of slightly above medium development. The occiput, when viewed from norma lateralis, is well curved. There is no plano-occipital flattening in this skull. On the os occipitale there is a ströng occipital torus.
The stature I have calculated from the maximum length of the left radius ( 228 mm. ), according to Pearson's formula 10 for males, is 160.50 cm. This lies on the lower boundary of the accepted medium category for males
Professor Kansu (op. cit., p. 569) attributes this skull to the Alpine racial type. It is evident that this skull is within the limits of the Alpine type, but in my opinion, it is a primitive example of the Alpine racial stock.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
Professor Kansu (op. cit., p. 569) makes the following statement on Kumtepe : "There remains, too, Show us for the first time the presence of the brachycephalic elements of Alpine type in prenistoric Troad." ii. This statement based upon one single skull does not reflect fully the anthropological situation in Kumtepe I.
Skull No. 3 coming from the earliest level of Kumtepe I (Level la) is definitely dolichocephalic. This individual represents the Eurafrican
9 Basion-bregma height was measured from the front part of the preserved left occipital condyle. As the bregma region is broken, it is evident that there will be some error in the height measurements.
ıo Male -= 85.925 3.271 radius (R. Martin ; op. cit., p. 1070).
11 This sentence has been translated from the Turkish test of Kansu by the writer, as it is not present in his French text.
304 MUZAFFER SÜLEYMAN ŞENYÜREK
type. Skull No. 4 belonging to the same level is also, very probably, dolichocephalic, and the skull No. 1 from level lb seems to be meso-cephalic. On the other hand, skull No. 2, coming from the latest level
of Kumtepe I ( ) is brachycephalic and of Alpine racial type. Thus, the available evidence indicates that in Kumtepe the dolichocephals of Eurafrican type had preceded the brachycephals.
In a study I made eight years ago 12 I showed that the majority of the Chalcolithic and Copper Age populations of Anatolia was dolichocep-halic and that in these periods the brachycephals were in the minority. In
the same study I stated that the earliest known inhabitants of Anatolia
" were dolichocephalic and that brachycephals came in later", probably representing the invaders. This new investigation has revealed that the same situation also exists in Kumtepe and hence in the region of Troy. The earliest inhabitants of Kumtepe and of this region were dolicho-cephalic and that the brachycephals had come in later, probably as a result of a movement of invasion or of infiltration.
In my study of 1941 ( op. cit. , p. 245 ) I had written the following lines regarding the physical anthropology of Anatolian pouplations in periods preceding the Chalcolithic age :
"From the studies of prehistoric crania in Europe we know that the dolichocephals preceded the arrival of the brachycephals. Thus, it is probable that in Anatolia also the populations of the periods preceding the chalcolithic age were dolichocephalic. But by this we do not mean that there were no brachycephalic individuals present in the earlier periods of Anatolia. Indeed the skull found at Kumtepe, which
is said to be neolithic, is brachycephalic (Prof. Şevket Aziz Kansu, 1937).
By this what we mean is that the greatest majority of the people were dolichocephalic in the earlier periods too. "
The statement I made on Kumtepe in the above-quoted paragraph of my earlier study was based on the paper of Professor Kansu (1937) where these skeletons were published as of Neolithic age. The fact that according to our present k nowledge Kumtepe I is of Chalcolithic age does not make any changes in the basic meaning of my conclusion of 1941. Indeed, the fact that this new investigation has revealed in Kumtepe, too, that the dolichocephals had preceded the brachycephals can be considered in favor of my opinion expressed in 1941. I want to reaffirm my belief, as I stated in 1941, that the majority of the Anatolian populations prior to the Chalcolithic age were dolichocephalic.
12 Muzaffer Süleyman Şenyürek : Anadolu Bakır Çakı ve Eti Sekenesinin
Krani-yolojik tetkiki. A craniological study of the Copper Age and Hittite populations of Anatolia. Belleten, Vol. V, No. 19, pp. 219-235, 237-253, 1941.