• Sonuç bulunamadı

M Successful intravenous immunoglobulin therapyin a case of acute fulminant myocarditis


Academic year: 2021

Share "M Successful intravenous immunoglobulin therapyin a case of acute fulminant myocarditis"


Tam metin



yocarditis is clinically and pathologically de-fined as inflammation of the myocardium and is one of the most common causes of dilated car-diomyopathy.[1] Its clinical presentation ranges from nonspecific systemic symptoms (fever, myalgia, pal-pitations, or exertional dyspnea) to fulminant hemo-dynamic collapse, cardiogenic shock, and sudden

death due to malignant arrhythmias.[1] Immu-nosuppressive therapy has been widely inves-tigated in acute

myo-carditis. However, mortality benefit has not been proved with randomized trials yet.[2] We report on a young female patient with acute fulminant myocar-ditis, who recovered rapidly after high-dose intrave-nous immunoglobulin therapy.

A previously healthy 30-year-old female patient was admitted to our emergency service with fatigue, vom-iting, and sharp chest pain following a flu-like syn-drome. Physical examination revealed marked

jugu-Successful intravenous immunoglobulin therapy

in a case of acute fulminant myocarditis

Akut fulminan seyirli miyokarditli bir olguda

başarılı intravenöz immünglobulin tedavisi

Tolga Özyiğit, M.D., Zeynep Ünal, M.D.,# Beste Özben, M.D.† Departments of Cardiology and #Radiology, American Hospital, İstanbul; Department of Cardiology, Medicine Faculty of Marmara University, İstanbul

Özet – Fulminan miyokardit, miyokardı tutan ve ani başlangıçlı akut kalp yetersizliğine neden olan enfla-matuvar bir hastalıktır. Hastalar hızlı ve agresif tedavi edilmezlerse prognoz kötüdür. Miyokardit gelişiminde otoimmün mekanizmaların rolü olduğu düşünülse de, miyokarditte immündüzenleyici tedaviler halen araştır-ma konusudur. Bu yazıda, standart medikal tedaviye rağmen klinik durumu hızla bozulma gösteren, akut mi-yokarditli 30 yaşında bir kadın hasta sunuldu. Hastaya yüksek doz intravenöz immünglobulin tedavisi (2 günde 70 gr/gün) uygulandı ve tedavinin ikinci gününde klinik tablosunda belirgin iyileşme görüldü. Sol ventrikül ejek-siyon frakejek-siyonu %32’den tedavinin 24. saatinde %40’a, 48. saatinde %50’ye yükseldi. Hasta 10. günde normal ejeksiyon fraksiyonu ile taburcu edildi ve iki yıllık takip süresince yeni kardiyak olay gelişmedi. Yüksek doz int-ravenöz immünglobulin tedavisi seçilmiş hastalarda, özellikle akut fulminan miyokarditin erken döneminde yararlı olabilir.

Summary – Fulminant myocarditis is an inflammatory process that occurs in the myocardium and causes acute-onset heart failure. Its prognosis is poor unless patients are promptly and aggressively supported. Although an autoimmune mechanism has been pos-tulated for myocarditis, immunomodulatory treatment strategies are still under investigation. We report on a 30-year-old woman with acute myocarditis, whose condition rapidly deteriorated despite standard medi-cal therapy. High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (70 g/day for 2 days) was given and the patient showed dramatic improvement on the second day. Left ventricular ejection fraction increased from 32% to 40% and to 50% at 24 and 48 hours of treatment, respec-tively. She was discharged on the tenth day with normal ejection fraction. She was free of cardiac events during a two-year follow-up. High-dose intravenous immuno-globulin may be potentially useful in selected patients, especially if given early in acute fulminant myocarditis.

Received: October 3, 2009 Accepted: December 30, 2009

Correspondence: Dr. Beste Özben. Yıldız Cad., Konak Apt., No: 43/24, 34353 Beşiktaş, İstanbul, Turkey. Tel: +90 216 - 327 10 10 / 558 e-mail: besteozben@yahoo.com

© 2011 Turkish Society of Cardiology



EF Ejection fraction


lar venous distension, tender hepatomegaly, and an S3 gallop rhythm. Blood pressure was 90/60 mmHg and heart rate was 110/min. The electrocardiogram showed sinus tachycardia. Laboratory findings on ad-mission revealed elevated cardiac and liver enzymes, and increased N-terminal proBNP and C-reactive pro-tein levels (Table 1). There was neither hypoxia nor hypocapnia in arterial blood gas. There was not any significant increase in autoantibody levels (anti-nRNP/ Sm, anti-Sm, anti-SS-A native, anti-Ro-52, anti-SS-B, anti-Scl-70, anti-PM-Scl, anti-Jo-1, anti-centromere B, anti-PCNA, anti-dsDNA, anti-nucleosomes, anti-his-tones, AMA-M2, anti-ribosomal P-protein, rheuma-toid factor). Coagulation markers were within normal range. Echocardiography showed impaired systolic function of both ventricles, mild to moderate mitral regurgitation, and minimal pericardial effusion. Car-diac magnetic resonance imaging also showed small pericardial effusion with global left ventricular dys-function and an ejection fraction of 32%. There was no perfusion defect in early perfusion MRI (Fig. 1), which ruled out acute ischemic heart failure. Based on history, clinical findings, laboratory parameters, echocardiography, and cardiac MRI findings, she was diagnosed with acute heart failure, most probably due to acute myocarditis. Endomyocardial biopsy was not performed considering its procedural complications, limited sensitivity and specificity, and the patient’s re-luctance. Viral serology was not investigated as labo-ratory results would take long time and would not af-fect the treatment strategies.

Standard heart failure therapy was started includ-ing ramipril 2.5 mg/day, metoprolol 25 mg/day, spi-ronolactone 25 mg/day, and furosemide 80 mg/day. Supplementary coenzyme Q10, carnitine, and pyri-doxine were also given at high doses even though

they were not found to be effective in large random-ized clinical trials. The patient’s condition showed a rapid deterioration during the third day of treat-ment, requiring intravenous inotropic agents. High-dose IVIG (Octagam, osmolality 310-380 mOsmol/ kg, Na ≤30 mmol/l, pH 5.1-6.0) was given as 70 g per day for two days with a total dose of 140 g. On the following day, the patient began to improve dramati-cally. Left ventricular EF increased to 40% and 50% at the 24th and 48th hours, respectively. Serial echo-cardiography also showed improvement in mitral re-gurgitation. Serial changes in the levels of inflamma-tion markers, NT-proBNP, and cardiac enzymes are shown in Table 1.

The patient was discharged on the tenth day with a normal EF (Fig. 2). Intravenous immunoglobulin did not cause any adverse effects including renal fail-ure or thrombotic events. Two years later, the patient was still in good health without any subsequent car-diac events.

Supportive care is the first-line treatment in acute myocarditis. Standard treatment consists of diuretics and aldosterone antagonists, vasodilators, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-adrenergic block-ing agents, and inotropic agents when necessary. A minority of patients with acute or fulminant myocar-ditis will require an intensive level of hemodynamic support and aggressive pharmacological intervention, including vasopressors and positive inotropic agents. A variety of immunomodulatory therapies have been proposed for the autoimmune phase of myocarditis, including immunosuppression, manipulation of cyto-kines, and anti-T-cell-receptor vaccines. Several


Figure 1. (A) No perfusion defect is seen on early perfusion MRI sections. (B) Short-axis and (C) four-chamber delayed enhancement MRI sections show no finding of delayed enhancement in the subendocardial layers.


cal trials based on the concept of autoimmunity have been conducted in humans, in which steroids, azathio-prine, cyclosporine, and OKT3 have been used as im-munosuppressive agents.[1]

Immunosuppressive agents has been widely inves-tigated in myocarditis, and to date, no randomized trial has shown mortality benefit.[2] In 1993, Parrillo et al.[3] conducted the first immunosuppressive trial in patients presenting with unexplained dilated cardio-myopathy and evidence for immune activation. They randomized the patients to either steroids or placebo. They reported a temporary improvement in ventricular function in reactive patients treated with prednisone, but there was no sustained benefit at 6 or 9 months because the reactive control group also showed com-parable spontaneous improvement in function. The Myocarditis Treatment Trial randomized 111 patients with biopsy-verified myocarditis to receive conven-tional therapy or an immunosuppressive regimen of

prednisone combined with either azathioprine or cy-closporine.[4] There was a similar degree of recovery of ventricular function in both arms of the study, and there was no difference in mortality, which was 20% overall at 1 year and 56% at 4.3 years of follow-up. These two controlled trials suggest that immunosup-pression should not be prescribed for the routine treat-ment of viral myocarditis.

Experimental studies have shown that IVIG is an effective therapy for viral myocarditis by antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects. Besides, it is consid-ered to be a safe treatment considering the numer-ous side effects of immunosuppressive therapy with corticosteroid and other agents. McNamara et al.[5] showed improvement in EF in patients with new-onset dilated cardiomyopathy treated with high-dose IVIG. Similarly, Kishimoto et al.[6] showed that high dose of IVIG improved EF in patients with myocar-ditis and acute dilated cardiomyopathy through the

Table 1. Serial changes in laboratory findings of the patient during hospitalization Day 1 Day 3* Day 5* Day 6 Day 7 Day 8 Day 10

Creatinine (mg/dl) 1.02 1.86 1.64 1.32 1.30 1.28 1.10 Na (mmol/l) 136 130 131 134 134 135 136 AST (U/l) 129 456 313 285 189 76 32 ALT (U/l) 155 498 368 302 159 72 52 CK-MB (U/l) 45 64 23 – – – 8 Troponin I (ng/ml) 1.8 1.1 0.32 – – – 0.12 NT-proBNP (pg/ml) >3000 >3000 – 1250 – – 456 CRP (mg/l) 89 107 45 24 15 11 3.5 Ejection fraction (%) 32 – – 40 50 – 71

*Day 3 and Day 5 denote the time for the initiation and end of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy, respectively.

Figure 2. M-mode echocardiography recordings. (A) On the first day of admission ejection fraction is 32%, (B) which then increased to 71% after high-dose IVIG treatment.


reduction of cytokines and associated improvement in oxidative stress. Intravenous immunoglobulin therapy has also been used in children with acute myocarditis. Drucker et al.[7] treated 21 children pre-senting with presumed acute myocarditis with IVIG, 2 g/kg, over 24 hours and reported that high-dose IVIG for treatment of acute myocarditis was associ-ated with improved recovery of left ventricular func-tion and a tendency to better survival during the first year after presentation.

Although observational studies have reported suc-cess with the use of a variety of immunosuppressive agents, there are conflicting results about the success of these therapies in randomized studies. In a double-blind, randomized, controlled trial of IVIG in 62 pa-tients with recent-onset heart failure and unexplained dilated cardiomyopathy, no differences were observed in all-cause mortality or improvement in EF at 6 or 12 months, and both groups demonstrated substantial increases in EF during the study period.[8] In contrast, Gullestad et al.[9] studied the efficacy of IVIG in a randomized trial of 40 patients with chronic dilated cardiomyopathy and found that IVIG therapy was as-sociated with marked increases in serum anti-inflam-matory markers, which correlated with significant im-provement in EF at 6 months. These changes were not observed in the control group.

There are several reasons why the results of ob-servational and randomized studies differ. First, his-tological resolution of myocardial inflammation does not closely correlate with improvement in ventricular function. Second, the high incidence of spontane-ous improvement in contractile function may lead to overestimation of the benefit of IVIG and supports the need for a control group whenever treatment suc-cess is evaluated. Third, the specific viral agent and the immunologic state of the host may result in dif-ferent response rates to immunosuppression. Finally, despite the well-established morbidity and mortality rates associated with myocarditis, clinical practice guidelines with regard to its evaluation are lacking. Endomyocardial biopsy remains the gold standard for establishing the diagnosis, despite its considerable limitations such as procedural complications, limited sensitivity and specificity, and variability of patholog-ic interpretation. Thus, the vast majority of diagnoses are based upon history (especially recent flu-like syn-drome), physical examination, 12-lead electrocardio-gram, serum cardiac biomarkers, echocardiography, and cardiac MRI, as in our case. On the other hand, the sensitivity and specificity of the Dallas criteria and

the more recent World Heart Federation criteria used in histological confirmation are uncertain. In parallel to improvements in diagnostic tools, identification of patients with acute myocarditis who will respond to IVIG therapy will be easier.

Finally, it is important to recognize that patients with fulminant myocarditis who develop abrupt severe hemodynamic compromise may have a much better prognosis than those with mild acute or chronic forms of myocarditis. These patients should be supported ag-gressively because there is a high likelihood of recov-ery. Goland et al.[10] reported that high-dose IVIG may be a potentially useful treatment in selected patients if given early in the course of acute fulminant inflamma-tory dilated cardiomyopathy. Similar to their series, our patient improved dramatically with IVIG therapy with no side effects and without developing cardiac events. Randomized prospective trials are still war-ranted to prove the real benefit of IVIG in this patient population.

Conflict­-of­-interest­ issues­ regarding­ the­ authorship­ or­ article:­None­declared

1. Magnani JW, Dec GW. Myocarditis: current trends in diagnosis and treatment. Circulation 2006;113:876-90. 2. Liu C, Chen J, Liu K. Immunosuppressive treatment for

inflammatory cardiomyopathy: meta-analysis of random-ized controlled trials. Int Heart J 2005;46:113-22. 3. Parrillo JE, Cunnion RE, Epstein SE, Parker MM,

Suffredini AF, Brenner M, et al. A prospective, random-ized, controlled trial of prednisone for dilated cardiomy-opathy. N Engl J Med 1989;321:1061-8.

4. Mason JW, O’Connell JB, Herskowitz A, Rose NR, McManus BM, Billingham ME, et al. A clinical trial of immunosuppressive therapy for myocarditis. The Myocarditis Treatment Trial Investigators. N Engl J Med 1995;333:269-75.

5. McNamara DM, Rosenblum WD, Janosko KM, Trost MK, Villaneuva FS, Demetris AJ, et al. Intravenous immune globulin in the therapy of myocarditis and acute cardio-myopathy. Circulation 1997;95:2476-8.

6. Kishimoto C, Shioji K, Kinoshita M, Iwase T, Tamaki S, Fujii M, et al. Treatment of acute inflammatory cardio-myopathy with intravenous immunoglobulin ameliorates left ventricular function associated with suppression of inflammatory cytokines and decreased oxidative stress. Int J Cardiol 2003;91:173-8.

7. Drucker NA, Colan SD, Lewis AB, Beiser AS, Wessel DL, Takahashi M, et al. Gamma-globulin treatment of acute myocarditis in the pediatric population. Circulation 1994;89:252-7.


8. McNamara DM, Holubkov R, Starling RC, Dec GW, Loh E, Torre-Amione G, et al. Controlled trial of intravenous immune globulin in recent-onset dilated cardiomyopathy. Circulation 2001;103:2254-9.

9. Gullestad L, Aass H, Fjeld JG, Wikeby L, Andreassen AK, Ihlen H, et al. Immunomodulating therapy with intra-venous immunoglobulin in patients with chronic heart failure. Circulation 2001;103:220-5.

10. Goland S, Czer LS, Siegel RJ, Tabak S, Jordan S, Luthringer D, et al. Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment for acute

ful-minant inflammatory cardiomyopathy: series of six patients and review of literature. Can J Cardiol 2008;24:571-4. Key words: Cardiomyopathy, dilated/complications; immunoglobu-lins, intravenous/therapeutic use; heart failure/drug therapy; myo-carditis/drug therapy.


Benzer Belgeler

Nanokompozitlerin sentezi, PMMA’nın emülgatörsüz emülsiyon polimerizasyonu sırasında HoVO 4 nanoparçacıklarının polimerizasyon içerisine belirli oranlarda ve

“İstanbul Altın Borsası Vadeli İşlemler ve Opsiyon Piyasası Yönetmeliği” ile İstanbul Altın Borsası’nda altın ve dövize dayalı gelecek sözleşmeleri

On the other hand, since the ACE-2 receptor is in our intestines, liver, and biliary tract when the SARS-CoV-2 virus enters the cell, it should be expected that COVID-19

Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of fQRS (p=0.019), longer Tpe/qt ratio (p=0.022) and clinical heart failure (<0.001) were significant predictors associated with

2019-nCoV: Novel coronavirus disease 2019; SARS: Severe acute respiratory syndrome; MERS: Middle East respiratory syndrome; IVIg: Intravenous immunoglobulin; ICU: Intensive care

Araştırma kapsamında incenen English Home ve Özdilek markaları, ev tekstil ve dekorasyon pazarının önemli temsilcileri olduklarından duyusal pazarlama uygulamalarını

In countries like ours where acute HAV infection is endemic, as in our case, pseudothrombocytopenia depending upon EDTA may be observed rarely in the course of acute HAV

The median platelet count of the patients in the second group who received two doses of pulse steroid was found to be statistically significantly higher than the patients in

Although we did not measure post- treatment IgG4 levels in our patients, it could explain the possible beneficial effect of IVIG on the increased levels of IgG4 in women

The diagnosis of citrullinemia is based on biochemical analysis of blood, plasma, and urine, revealing increased levels of ammo- nia, citrulline, glutamine, and orotic

At 1 year of treatment, corrected visual acuity was 10/10, KP had disappeared, the optic disc appeared normal on fundus examination, and pigmented laser scars were evident over

Dolayısıyla her ne kadar anlatıların eğitimde kullanılmasıyla ilgili kesin, doğru ve genel olarak geçerli bir kılavuz sunamasak da, bize birçok açıdan yol gösterecek eski

Herein, we describe a case of acute eosinophilic myocarditis due to Giardia lamblia present- ed with cardiogenic shock for a normal peripheral eosinophilic count upon admission,

Acute fulminant eosino- philic myocarditis due to Giardia lamblia infection presented with cardiogenic shock in a young patient. Robaei D, Vo-Robaei L, Bewes T, Terkasher B,

A suggested practical definition of FM may thus be summarized as follows (Table 1): (1) Acute illness (<2–4-week his- tory from the onset of symptoms); (2) Hemodynamic

In acute fulminant myocarditis (AFM) with refractory medical treatment, the ventricular function returned to normal if venous–arte- rial ECMO (VA-ECMO) is applied early (1, 2)..

Presented study shows that, even a 5-day administration of positive inotropic agents (dopamine and dobutamine) results in increased cTn-I levels; the decrease in cTn-I levels

A case of myocarditis mimicking acute coronary syndrome associated with H1N1 i ̇nfluenza A virus infection 575 nervous system complications such as encephalopa-..

In this article, we have presented the case of a 14-year- old girl with AFM who experienced cardiogenic shock and resistant ventricular tachycardia (VT) unresponsive to medical

In this paper we present a SCA patient with hepatic failure caused by acute cholestatic hepatitis B in whom plasmapheresis was performed successfully because transplantation was not

In this report, a rare case of dilated cardiomyopathy and endocarditis due to Candida albicans in a 4-year-old child diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia is shared

High-Dose Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment in A Carbon Monoxide Intoxication Patient Attending Acute Smoke Inhalation and Burn.. Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a serious emergency

Von Mitgliedern der deutschen Kolonie in Ankara wurden seit 1954 70 Stück Schwarzwild in den mit Schilfbestandenen Niederungen der Sakarya in der ümgebung der Ortschaft Türktaciri