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REMOVAL EFFICIENCY FROM REMOVAL EFFICIENCY FROM WATER BY ADSORPTION AND WATER BY ADSORPTION AND PHOTOCATALYTIC OXIDATION PHOTOCATALYTIC OXIDATION PHOTOCATALYTIC OXIDATION PHOTOCATALYTIC OXIDATION

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COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ARSENIC COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ARSENIC

REMOVAL EFFICIENCY FROM REMOVAL EFFICIENCY FROM WATER BY ADSORPTION AND WATER BY ADSORPTION AND PHOTOCATALYTIC OXIDATION PHOTOCATALYTIC OXIDATION PHOTOCATALYTIC OXIDATION PHOTOCATALYTIC OXIDATION

WITH TITANIUM DIOXIDE WITH TITANIUM DIOXIDE

Züleyha Özlem KOCABAŞ

Züleyha Özlem KOCABAŞ, Yuda YÜRÜM , Yuda YÜRÜM

(2)

Background

 The significantly high contamination level of arsenic has been

reported for many countries as

India, USA, Mexico, China, Argentina and Turkey.

 Arsenic is severely harmful to the human health and long term exposure to arsenic can lead to cancer of the lungs, skin, kidney and liver.

 World Health Organization (WHO) lowered arsenic level in drinking water from 50 to 10 ppb on Jan 23, 2006

*

.

drinking water from 50 to 10 ppb on Jan 23, 2006

*

.

 Arsenic is naturally occurring element.

Natural sources:

- Dissolution and weathering of rocks

- Volcanoes - Forest fires

Manmade/man-affected sources:

- Agriculture

- Mining and industrial wastes

*USEPA, Federal Register, 66 (14) (2001) 6976–7066.

9/17/2010

2 ICCE 2010

* *http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2008/04/science-prize-h/

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Chemistry Behind Arsenic

 In natural water, arsenic occurs both in organic and inorganic forms.

 Inorganic arsenic exists in -3, 0, +3 and +5 oxidation states in aquatic systems. The elemental state 0 and -3 are quite rare as compared to +3 and +5 oxidation states.

O

-

O

-

As (III) - As +3 Arsenite As (V) - As +5 Arsenate

 As (III) has greater toxicity and mobility than As (V).

 Organic arsenic is detoxified by methylation process.

OH OH

As

ııı

OH As

V

OH

O

O

-

(4)

Arsenic Treatment Options

 Coagulation – coprecipitation

 Ion exchange technique

 Membrane technologies

 Reverse osmosis

 Nanofiltration

 Bioremediation

 Adsorption

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Objectives

 Synthesis of anatase nanoparticles for adsorption and photocatalytic oxidation processes

 Analysis of the arsenic adsorption on the surface of anatase nanoparticles since relatively few studies exist on that field

exist on that field

 Understanding the photocatalytic oxidation

mechanism of As(III) by using anatase nanoparticles

under UV illumination

(6)

Adsorbent Material- Titanium Dioxide

 It is widely used as a pigment for paints, plastics, cosmetics and toothpastes due to the its brilliant whiteness.

 It possesses a high potential for the environmental application due to the its physical and chemical stability, lower cost, nontoxicity and resistance to corrosion.

 It can be classified as three types (anatase , rutile and brookite) in terms of its crystal structure.

 Anatase has higher photocatalytic properties than rutile

*

.

 In this study, anatase mineral type was used as an adsorbent material.

* D. Mohan, C.U. Pittman Jr, (2007), Arsenic removal from water/wastewater using adsorbents —A critical review, Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol.142, pp. 1–53.

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Synthesis Route of Anatase Nanoparticles

 A sol-gel method was used to synthesize the anatase nanoparticles .

 This method was selected because it creates amorphous particles, allowing us to control the crystallinity.

Precursor Solution Hydrolysis Solution Final Volume TTIP(ml) 2-propanol (ml) Distilled water (ml) 2-propanol (ml)



The gel preparation process was started when the precursor and

hydrolysis solutions were mixed together under continuous stirring at room temperature.



After certain period of mixing, sample was filtrated and annealed at different temperatures for 2 h.

TTIP(ml) 2-propanol (ml) Distilled water (ml) 2-propanol (ml)

5 15 2,5 97,5 100

(8)

SEM Images

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8

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XRD Results

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

Anatase 350 C

Intensity

40 60 80 100 120 140

Anatase 450 C

Intensity

0 10

0 20

40 60 80

0 20

0 20 40 60 80

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200

Anatase- commercial

A(101)

Intensity

(10)

Prepare working solution - (contains

arsenic species )

Add adsorbent material

Arrange pH with acid or base

Filtrate solution with 0,45µm

syringe

Analysis of solutions with ICP-OES

Procedure:

Batch Adsorption Experiments

arsenic species ) material syringe

Adsorption efficiency depends on optimum;

- pH

- Contact time

- Experiment temperature - Adsorbent amount

- Initial arsenic concentration

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Effect of Contact Time

 Arsenic uptake (q

e

) increases

with increasing contact time until the state of equilibrium is

reached due to saturation of adsorbent’s active sites.

0,15 0,2 0,25 0,3

(m g /g )

Over 81% of the arsenate is taken up within 60 min

X C q

e

= C

o e

0 0,05 0,1 0,15

0 10 20 30 40

As(III) As(V)

q e (

Time (h)

is taken up within 60 min exposure and maximum 94.7% arsenate have been removed within 2 hours reaction time by anatase nanoparticles.

 The maximum 56% of arsenite

have been taken up within 36 h.

(12)

Sorption Kinetics

Kinetic Models Parameters As(III) As(V)

Pseudo-first order: k

1

(h

-1

) 0.032 0.024

q

e

(mg/g) 0.338 0.283

R

2

0.941 0.470

Pseudo-second order: k

2

(g/mg h) 6.711 18.08

Pseudo-second order: k

2

(g/mg h) 6.711 18.08

q

e

(mg/g) 0.152 0.239

R

2

0.997 0.999

Interparticle diffusion: k

p

(mg/g h

1/2

) 0.016 0.019

C (mg/g 0.063 0.151

R

2

0.810 0.483

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 Effect of pH

Initial arsenic concentration = 5 mg/L adsorbent amount = 5 g/L, contact time = 24 h 0

1 2 3 4 5

0 2 4 6 8 10

As(V)

Residue Arsenic(mg/L)

pH 0

1 2 3 4 5

0 2 4 6 8 10

As(III)

ResidueArsenic (mg/L)

pH

• Effect of Adsorbent Amount

AdsorbedArsenic%

Initial arsenic concentration = 5 mg/L adsorbent amount = 5 g/L, contact time = 24 hpH

0 20 40 60 80 100

0,5 1

As(III) As(V)

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Adsorption Isotherms

0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1 1,2

As(III) As(V)

q

e

(m g /g )

Name of Adsorbent Adsorption capacity

(mg g-1)

Iron oxide sand 0.029

Activated alumina 0.1803

Red mud 0.66

 Comparasion of As(III) adsorption potential of anatase nanoparticles with other adsorbents

0 0,2

0 2 4 6 8 10

C

e

(mg/L )

max max

1

q C b

q q

C

e

e

e

= +

e f

e

Ln C

K n Ln q

Ln 1

+

=

Langmuir Constants Freundlich Constants

anatase

nanopar ticles

R

2

q

max

(mg/g)

b

(1/mg) R

2

K

f

n

f

As(III) 0.998

0.403 5.503

0.801 0.231 2.898 As(V) 0.982 1.145 3.460 0.960 2.081 0.707

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Iron oxide impregnated activated alumina

0.734

* S. Ayoob et al. (2007), Performance evaluation of modified calcined bauxite in the sorptive removal of arsenic(III) from aqueous environment, Colloids and surfaces A, 293, 247-254.

(15)

Free Energy of Adsorption

 The calculated free energy values are -13.48 kj/mol, -16.25 kj/mol for As(III) and As(V) at 298 K.

20 25 30 35 40

As(III) - 298 K As(V) - 298 K As(III) - 308 K As(V) - 308 K

/q

e

) 1000

* ln( K

f

RT

G = −

and As(V) at 298 K.

 The negative free energy values indicate the

feasibility of the process and the spontaneous nature of adsorption.

0 5 10 15 20

0 2 4 6 8 10

C

e

/q

C

e

(mg/L)

(16)

 Generation charge carriers and photoxidants TiO + hν → TiO (e

+ h

+

) (1)

• A natase is the widely used photocatalyst due to its strong oxidizing power and favorable band gap energy.

• Photocatalysis can rapidly oxidize arsenite (As(III)) to less toxic arsenate (As(V)) by using following mechanism

*

;

Photocatalytic Oxidation of Arsenite

TiO

2

+ hν → TiO

2

(e

cb

+ h

vb+

) (1) e

cb

+ O

2

→ O

2•−

(2)

h

vb+

+ OH

-

→ HO

(3)

 Arsenic(III) oxidation

As(III) + HO

→ As(IV) + OH

-

(4) As(III) + O

2•−

→ 2H

+

→ As(IV) + H

2

0

2

(5) As(IV) + O

2

→ As(V) + O

2•−

(6)

* Fu-Shen Zhang, Hideaki Itoh, (2006), Photocatalytic oxidation and removal of arsenite from water using slag-iron oxide-Tio2 adsorbent, Chemosphere 65, 125-131.

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0.45 µm filtration

Molybdenum Blue Method

Adding anatase nanoparticles

to the solution

Photocatalytic Oxidation Experiments

As(III) Stock solution

Analysis of Total

Arsenic UV-A/TiO

2

illumination

Analysis of Total

Arsenic (V) forms complex

Analysis of reduced and

unreduced

samples with UV

spectrophotometer

solution

(18)

UV light only TiO

2

with UV light

Effect of Illumination Time on Arsenic Removal

1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 5

As(III)

As(V)

R es id u e A s (m g/ L)

1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 5

As(V) As(III)

R es id u e A s (m g/ L)

 The effect of illumination time on arsenite oxidation was examined at an initial arsenite concentration of 5 mg/l and adsorbent amount 5 g/l at pH 4.

 Arsenite species could be totally oxidized to arsenate only by UV-light

illumination, but the reaction rate was slower than the TiO

2

photocatalyzed reaction.

0 0,5 1

0 50 100 150 200 250

R es id u e

Time (min) 0

0,5 1 1,5

0 100 200 300 400 500

R es id u e A s (m g/ L)

Time (min)

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R e m an in g T ot al A s (m g/ l) 1 2 3 4 5

Anatase-without UV Anatase- UV

Effect of Adsorbent Amount on Total Arsenic Removal

Dosage (g/l)

 Experimental conditions:

- Illumination time = 3.5 h, contact time = 4 h.

- Without illumination, contact time = 24 h.

 Arsenic removal efficieny is greatly affected by adsorbent dosage.

 The optimum application amount of anatase nanoparticles is around 3–5 g/l for the

R e m an in g T ot al A s (m g/ l)

0

0,5 1 2 3 4 5 10

(20)

Effect of Contact Time

20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

As(III) - without UV light

A s ad so rb ed A s ( % )

 Experimental conditions:

- anatase nanoparticles dosage = 5 g/L, pH = 4, initial arsenic concentration = 5 mg/L.

 The adsorption increased linearly from the beginning and rapidly reached a plateau value within 4 h for UV-illuminated anatase

nanoparticles.

0 10 20

0 10 20 30 40

As(III) - without UV light As(III) - with UV light

A s

Time (h)

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20 ICCE 2010

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 By using sol-gel method, anatase nanoparticles crystal was synthesized with particle size between 40-100 nm.

 Adsorption experiments were performed for anatase nanoparticles to obtain optimum pH, contact time and adsorbent amount.

 The low adsorption capacity of anatase nanoparticles from aqueous solution usually limit its application in contaminated water treatment.

Conclusion

aqueous solution usually limit its application in contaminated water treatment.

 Using photocatalytic oxidation, arsenite can rapidly oxidized to arsenate, which is less toxic and mobile in aquatic environment.

 The removal capacity of As(III) from water was improved by UV- irradiation about ~90 % as compared with

adsorption process of anatase nanoparticles.

(22)

Yürüm Research Group

Thank you for your attention..

Any Questions? 22

Any Questions?

(23)

Calculation of q e

 The amount of arsenic adsorbed per unit weight of the adsorbent was calculated by using the following

equation;

C q = C o− e

q

e

: is the concentration of the arsenic on the adsorbent (mg/g), C

o

and C

e

: are the initial and the equilibrium concentrations of the arsenite or arsenate in the solution (mg/L),

X: is the dosage of the adsorbent material used (g/L).

X

C

q e = C o e

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