THE ISLAMIC CHALLENGE AGAINST THE GLOBALIZATION MOVEMENT AND THE FREEDOM OF WORLD TRADE
Prof. Dr. Suhail Hussein AL-FATLAWI(1) Post-Doctorate
Globalization faces many challenges. At the forefront of these challenges is the Islamic. The Globalization its main objective in the free trade of the world is facing many internal and external obstacles. The research includes Islamic obstacles and challenges facing the Globalization in achieving its objectives. It also include a brief overview of the WTO establishing in 1994. The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the fundamental leader of globalization. The WTO is the organizer of global trade freedom. In the forefront of challenges, facing the freedom of Globalization is the religious challenge represented in Islam. This organization has developed a unified global economic framework that eliminates the religious specificities adopted by many religions, particularly Islam. Islam is Anti- globalization, or counter-globalization. The end of the research include conclusions and recommendations.
Keywords: Globalization, Free trade, Organization, Islamic, International, Law.
The challenges facing the Globalization and World Trade Organization are not limited to internal challenges, but there are major external challenges, which are not less important than the internal challenges.
The Globalization and freedom of world trade is based on removing the barriers of moving capital and people between nations, calling for the unification of religious, cultures, societies, trends and the applying of market mechanism. The World Trade Organization (WTO) applies free world trade therefore, it is the official body for the implementation of this freedom.
The United States of America believes that the problems facing the International community and the conflicts that threaten the world with devastating wars emanate from the contradictions existing among Countries. These contradictions are differences in religion, nationalism and culture. The unification of the world requires the elimination of these contradictions. This is what America calls the Americanization of the world nations. Which means spreading the American culture all over the world.
The problem of this research is based on the fact that the international free-trade that has been launched since the GATT agreements in 1947 to the present, are facing external problems as well as internal problems. This freedom clashes with religious beliefs and systems, and it eliminates nationalist, popular sentiment, and environmentalists. Such challenges impede the implementation of Global Free Trade. As each society tries to uphold its heritage, privacy and refuses to give up its religion, nationality and culture,
(1)Professor of International Law -Faculty of Law - University of Jerash- Jordan. Dean of the Faculty of Law and Political Science - Alburk Academy of Sciences – Denmark. Dean Assistant of the Faculty of Law, University of Baghdad, Chairman of the Scientific Society for Research and Strategic Studies, Editor of the Journal of Political and Legal Sciences, Member of the American Society of International Law (ASIL) , Member of European Society for International Security (EJIS), Member of the Egyptian Scientific Society of International Law, Member of International Amnesty. Email: suhelftlaui@Yahoo.com
especially Islamic societies, this adherence is a challenge to the freedom of world trade. Beside the terrorism phenomenon that has also become a challenge to the freedom of world trade.
Accordingly, this research addresses the challenges facing the World Trade Organization (WTO): the Islamic challenge, the national challenge, the popular challenge, the challenge of environmentalists and the challenge of terrorism. Before exploring the external challenges of the World Trade Organization (WTO), the issue of free trade in the world and the WTO should be briefly discussed.
FIRST: THE CONCEPT OF GLOBALIZATION INTERNATIONAL FREE TRADE
Globalization is the increasing interaction of people through the growth of the international flow of money, ideas and culture. Globalization is primarily an economic process of integration which has social and cultural aspects as well. It involves goods and services, and the economic resources of capital, technology and data2. Advances in the means of transport, have been including the rise of the telegraph and its modern offspring, the Internet and mobile phones, major factors in Globalization, generating further interdependence of economic and cultural activities3. Globalization is linked to the freedom of world trade and to the World Trade Organization.
Economic globalization is the increasing economic interdependence of national economies across the world through a rapid increase in cross-border movement of goods, services, technology, and capital.
Whereas the globalization of business is centered around the diminution of international trade regulations as well as tariffs, taxes, and other impediments that suppresses global trade, economic globalization is the process of increasing economic integration between countries, leading to the emergence of a global marketplace or a single world market4.
The main objective of the World Trade Organization (WTO) is to ensure free world trade. In order to research the external challenges facing the WTO, we should briefly examine the concept of Free World Trade. It is established that free trade is the primary objective of the World Trade Organization. The search for Globalization is a search of the World Trade Organization and freedom of world trade.
The concept of free trade
Free trade5: Is an economic term that usually refers to the opening of the policy of buying and selling to be absolute without restrictions for the people of one country and other countries. For example, a country that pursues a free trade policy does not prevent its citizens from selling goods produced in other countries, nor does it require them to buy from their own country. The opposite of free trade is the protection system, which is the policy of protecting domestic industries from external competition by imposing tariffs or certain taxes on foreign goods by determining the quantities of goods imported by the people into the State, or by any other measures. For example, consumers in Indiana of USA make more profit if they buy orange from California. Since orange production cost less expensive, and may also earn more when they buy woolen goods from UK which produces these goods in far less cost than USA.
Thinking about free trade is based on the principle of comparative advantage. According to this principle, market forces in a region lead producers to specialize in the most efficient products, or at a minimum cost and maximum profit. Each region imports goods that are less expensive to produce. This policy leads to the largest comprehensive global production, so that consumers can receive the largest possible volume of goods at the lowest prices.
2 Albrow, Martin and Elizabeth King (eds.) (1990). Globalization, Knowledge and Society London. p. 2ss.
3 Wolf, Martin (2014). "Shaping Globalization" (PDF). Finance & Development. 51 (3): 22–25
4 For details see: O'Sullivan, Arthur; Sheffrin, Steven M. (2003). Economics: Principles in Action. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. p. 453.
5check the details about the Free Trade
Henry Gorge, Protection or Free Trade, Robert Shackelford Publisher, 1998.
Understanding the WTO Handbook at WTO official website 2015. (Note that the document's printed folio numbers do not match the pdf page numbers.)
Despite the global efficiency of free trade, most countries prefer protectionism. One of the reasons for this, is the instability of global affairs. Where some scientists believe that as long as there is a risk of war, the state should not rely entirely on foreign materials. The other reason is to support the entry of workers and companies that may be affected by low-priced imports. Many Less Developed Countries (LDC) use the trade protection system to promote their small industries.
Those who favor free trade justify that trade protection may become an obstacle to the prosperity of the country, and may lead to national isolation and national jealousy, to the threat of war, which in turn requires greater protection and they believe that free trade leads to international understanding and world peace6.
World Trade Organization
The GATT Convention, held in Havana in 1947, is the legal and practical basis for the establishing of the World Trade Organization, in which (56) countries had participated in the Havana Charter negotiations in 1947, and it was necessary to approve the initial document by half of the participating countries.
Although the Havana conference was originally held under a US initiative, the US administration withdrew its tentative approval of the charter and froze its offer to the US Congress for ratification. The US position continued until the US administration officially refused to ratify the document, especially the part on the establishment of an International Trade Organization (ITO), fearing that this document would undermine American sovereignty over its foreign trade.
Then the countries were able to conclude important agreements, including the International Monetary Fund (IMF)7 and the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)under the Bretton 8 Woods agreements in 19449. The decision was to establish the World Trade Organization. However, the U United States strongly opposed this when it felt that such an organization was an infringement of the Congressional powers to make national decisions. Therefore, the resort to compromise was the adoption of the GATT as an international treaty and the establishment of a permanent secretariat to oversee the application of this treaty and the organization of multilateral trade negotiations10.
Following the failure to achieve the goals of the Havana Conference, the United States sought an international convention away from the United Nations. The establishment of a global trade organization under the auspices of the United Nations meant that the Organization would meet the requirements of all Countries. It found it impossible to create a global trade organization under the United Nations that would combine systems made of different commercial and economic systems. It is not easy to combine the tendencies of the capitalist system and the Social system: that is, between countries that call for freedom of trade and limit the role of the State in interfering in the affairs of production and internal and external trade, and other Countries whose primary functions are to interfere in internal and external trade and control of means of production.
In order for the United States to avoid becoming part of a global trade organization governed by laws and regulations that did not have a fundamental role in its creation, it worked to convene an international conference to conclude a trade agreement that would achieve its objectives. It was able to conclude the GATT Convention in Geneva in 1947.
6 Website: http://www.marefa.org
7 International Monetary Fund (IMF)
8 International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)
9Clyde Eagleton, op. Cit, p.363.
10 Dr. Ibrahim Al-Misawi, GATT and its Sisters, The New System of International Trade and the Future of Arab Development III, Center for Arab Unity Studies, Beirut 2001, p26.
The idea of the GATT is based on the nature of the convergent political and economic systems of the world. For example, the political and economic system in the United States of America is based on the fact that the State's task is to protect internal and external security. Funding for this task requires taxes on commercial, industrial companies and services. As these companies flourished, grew and widened, the country share of revenues will be more from these companies, so these companies play a large role in the prosperity of the state and in strengthening its political, economic and military capabilities, and requires to achieve this goal to release the freedom of these companies in economic, commercial, industrial and service, and to provide the widest opportunities for work Completely free at both domestic and external levels, including commercial activities of interest to the citizen, And the exploitation of the country's core resources, with the launch of freedom of competition between these companies. Thus, the task of the state is limited to security matters and defense.
In countries based on the public sector, which are called socialist countries, work is quite different. The task of the socialist state was to meet the needs of the people and to provide their demands. This requires the imposition of state control over the means of production, the control of the economy and the prevention of the private sector. For that reason, the socialist state has commercial, economic, industrial and service companies and works through government institutions to satisfy the needs of the people in a manner that achieves a life of social justice. To implement such a policy, the task of the state becomes economical, industrial, commercial and service. To carry out this task, it controls its basic wealth and exploits it to support the institutions it has created through direct financial support and non-taxation.
The United States of America convened an international conference in Geneva and quoted the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) of 30 October 1947, annexed to the Concluding Document of the Second Session of the Preparatory Committee for the United Nations Conference on Trade and Employment of the United Nations Economic and Social Council, held in Havana in 1947. The Geneva Conference called the amendments the "GATT11 convention to distinguish it from the United Nations Convention. So that the Convention is in line with Western capitalist trends. Thus, Western countries were able to isolate socialist countries from the international economic system. This Convention was concluded outside the United Nations, although the Convention's origins are derived from United Nations documents.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) established the Marrakesh Agreement in 1994. After several conferences between Countries. The most prominent of these conferences were the Uruguay meeting in 1993 and the Marrakech meeting in 1994. Long discussions took place between the countries which discussed the provisions of the Convention and formed a committee to be drawn up by experts. After extensive discussion, the proposed draft was approved for approval by Countries, and became effective on 1 January 1995.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is defined as: "an international organization working on the freedom of international trade through the movement of goods, services and persons between Countries, subject to consequent economic, political, social, cultural and environmental effects and protection of moral property".
The World Trade Organization (WTO) has made a fundamental change in the global economic structure in the philosophy that fair liberalization of global trade is the best way to achieve global economic growth that will intensify the mechanism of raising living standards in both developing and developed countries. This organization represents the manifestations of globalization in the area of the economy in the free movement of goods and capital in a way not seen in history before and will be followed by the rule of liberal principles in the political and social areas12, and the transition from a despicable colonial
11 Article 4, paragraph (4), of the WTO Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization.
system to a new system of international relations based on global domination given to the major powers in directing economic, social, political and cultural transformations.13
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is working to reduce barriers to trade created by Countries. The core of the multilateral trading system is the WTO agreements to which the majority of the world has joined. These agreements are the legal bases and rules of international trade, essentially, they are contracts that guarantee important trade rights to member countries and oblige governments to maintain their trade policies within acceptable borders in the interest of all. Countries have negotiated the agreements as signed by governments, but the purpose of those agreements is essentially to help producers of goods, goods, service providers, exporters and importers to run their business successfully leading to the interests and well-being of the peoples of member countries14.
Freedom of international trade benefits people from two main venues: the first; consumers can access more goods at lower cost through specialization and exchange rather than trying to self-sustain and produce everything they need themselves; the other, makes it possible to use scarce resources more efficiently. If each country focuses on the goods it can produce more efficiently than other countries, the economic principle of comparative advantages determines that each country must focus on goods that can produce with high efficiency and buy from other countries goods that could not be produced with similar efficiency15.
While international competition has forced some international trade partners to adopt trade policies that give them access to world markets with high efficiency, such as the adoption of dumping policy, direct and indirect export subsidy policy, export protection programs or official national producers. However, the World Trade Organization (WTO), which in the mid-1990s addressed the discussion of most of these policies and abolished them, agreed with the contracting parties to the Uruguay Convention establishing the Organization16. From the above, International trade can be defined as "the unimpeded exchange of goods and services across Countries' borders."
In actual terms, we say that the World Trade Organization is the Globalization with all its meaning, which is directly related to capitalism. But solving the problems of humanity and creating a world economic order that is happy for society in all its colors and types, cannot be achieved by applying capitalism. It is the capitalism that created these problems and created a great social differences between the members of one society and the deference’s between dependent and independent countries. Thus, we can say that the capitalist system did not create the welfare of the societies in which it was born and merged with it over many decades.
SECOND- THE ISLAMIC CHALLENGE OF THE GLOBALIZATION AND WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION
The World Trade Organization (WTO) came with a comprehensive economic system for the whole world, painting the world of the earth in a single way, encompassing all its people and all its inhabitants, and unifying its economic, social and intellectual activities without regard to different religions, cultures, nationalities and races. And the Organization's control over all aspects of life. The adoption of a market
12 Khalid Abdul Aziz Al-Gohary, World Trade Organization. Objective Review, Journal of International Politics No. 149 July 2002 Volume 37 p212.
13 Dr. Mahmoud Khald Al-Musafer, Economic Globalization, Hegemony of the North and Implications for the South, Bayt al- Hikma, Baghdad, 2002, p.
14 Talal Abu-Ghazaleh, World Trade Organization, (Internet( )ICI EUCE OCCIE.HTM.
15 McKenzie, Lionel W. 1954. Specialization and Efficiency in World Production. The Review of Economic Studies, 21(3) pp.165-180. Dr. Abdul Aziz Al-Douri, Introduction to Arab Economic History, Beirut, 1968.
16 Samuelson, Paul. 2001. A Ricardo-Sraffa Paradigm Comparing the Gains from Trade in Finished Goods. Journal of Economic Literature, 39(4) pp.1204-1214.
economy policy comes from the market economy and the purchase shares of foreign companies. Including marketing, exchanges, communication, politics, thought and ideology.
1 - Islamic jurisprudence controversy on the Globalization and World Trade Organization
There were many views on the impact of the Globalization and World Trade Organization, and in particular its main objective, the freedom of world trade among the others and the Muslim. There are several opposing intellectual streams on the freedom of international trade and its impact on Islamic countries.
First Islamic view; sees freedom of world trade as good and generally beneficial. Because we will benefit from accelerated technological progress and the integration of the global economy, which may offer an unprecedented opportunity to eradicate poverty and give millions of lives a better life. Although the freedom of world trade will inevitably lead to the loss of Islamic countries to some of their sovereignty in directing their economies as they wish.
While the second trend view the freedom of world trade is a reality and an objective result of the development of the productive forces in capitalism and scientific and technical progress, leading to more entanglement and integration between the different economies, but the freedom of global trade in its current dimensions raises new observations and criticisms, serious and most important that the gains reach a few countries, in which the benefited population does not exceed 20% of the world's total population.
While its disadvantages affect most developing countries and lead to increased economic problems and hinder the development process. This trend is being adopted by some thinkers in third world countries and some leftist and socialist forces in capitalist countries.
The third view is that the Globalization and freedom of world trade is one of the evils of the global capitalist system, because it seeks to compensate the economies of advanced capitalist countries for the contraction of their internal markets by transferring more of the entire production process (especially dirty industries) from major capital centers to developing countries the productive process in the world.
Capitalism through the freedom of international trade attempts to solve its economic problems by exporting them to third world countries. This leads to the rich becoming richer and the poor is poorer. This trend is supported by most of the political, economic and social forces in developing countries suffering from poverty, malnutrition, unemployment, widespread diseases and the continued looting of their wealth through multinational corporations and unequal trade17. This trend stems from the suffering suffered by those countries, which find in the freedom of world trade only more poverty and late development.
Accordingly, there are those who believe that the Globalization and freedom of world trade is a challenge to Islam and contradicts its provisions, while the other view that Islam is a challenge to the freedom of global trade and limit it. Both way, Islam and the freedom of world trade are contradictory and not in line.
The third view defines the position of Islam on the Globalization and freedom of international trade as follows:
A- The freedom of world trade is known as a new world order under the American administration, which is one aspect of American colonialism but in a civilized way. If this is the case, then Islam stands against it because Islam seeks justice for all the peoples of the world. The freedom of world trade is based on domination and hegemony, impoverishment of the people, transfer of funds to the United States and subordination to its policies and ambitions.
B- Freedom of world trade means globalization itself, and globalization is an unknown term among jurists and it is not known what it means. The first is to ask about who uses this term. This issue is a great
17 Mohammed Adam, Factors that led to the emergence of globalization, the Internet site of globalization
one, where the feet are still deviated, were the enemies of Islam had made through the propaganda all the ugly moves against Islam and its wise legislation18.
C- There is a difference between the universality of Islam and the freedom of world trade. The West seeks to dominate the world by lifting restrictions on markets, goods and capital through the freedom of world trade, which leads to deepening conflicts and conflicts. The universality of Islam is based on acquaintance and openness to other cultures without exile, exclusion or coercion. "There is no compulsion in religion; truly the right way has become clearly distinct from error".19 In the opinion of the fourth trend: the different challenges facing Islamic countries, as a result of the globalization of Western culture. Apart from the details, we refer here to two major conflicted positions:
The first: is based on the fact that the freedom of world trade is a serious evil attacking the Islamic Nation (people), and threatens its unity, entity and continuity, therefore, we must close our doors for them, and fortify our societies by calling for reference to the nation's cultural origins. Including the book, the Sunnah and the biography of the righteous heritage, and work to keep young people away from exposure to the free means of International cultural trade invasive newspapers, television and space stations and even travel to the west or study at their universities.
Second: This position is based on the fact that the rise of the Muslims cannot be achieved except in terms of the renaissance of the West, and that culture is a human heritage, not limited to people or a region or a country. We must open doors to the cultures of expatriates. , So that cultures converge, the world unites around one culture, and this is better for peace and global progress. There are other positions approaching or moving away from these positions20.
The issue is reaching the problematic point of view. In the age of free world trade, there is no closure in the world even if it is possible or available. Neither total nor unrestricted openness to the freedom of contemporary world trade is also true. The dangers of this approach are no less dangerous - if not more - than the other approach of closure21.
The fifth trend view that the Islamic nation has a stable culture that enables it to participate in the globalization of culture without fear or hesitation if the governments of these countries prepare the scientific, technical and human forces to bring about the freedom of required world trade.
The culture of the nation is the culture of Islam, and its religion is the seal of religions, which God has accepted for mankind, a confirmation of the saying of Allah: "Today I completed your religion, and completed my grace, and I have accepted Islam religion to all of you"22. The globalization of Islamic culture in the age of freedom of the new world trade is not only in the realm of permissible or desirable, but also within the circle of legitimate duty, based on the duty of spreading Islam and its transmission to all regions of the world. (12:108) Say, “This is my way; I invite to Allah with insight, I and those who follow me. And exalted is Allah; and I am not of those who associate others with Him.”And said also 23
“You were the best nation brought out to the people, you enjoin good and forbid evil24”. This is why Islam is an antidote to and a challenge to globalization25, This view believes that Islam can benefit from the
18 Sheikh Faisal Mawlawi, The Position of Islam on Globalization, Madinah Center for Science and Engineering, Globalization and its Impact on the Economies of Islamic Countries, Alnaba Magazine - Issue 42. February 2000, p.1.
19 Abdul Said Abdul Ismail, Globalization, Glory of Green Andalusia, Saudi Arabia 2001, p.150.
20 Ibid., P.6.
21 Dr. Abdul Aziz Al-Mansour, op. cit, p. 563.
22 Surat Al - Maida 3.
23 Surah Yusuf verse 108.
24 Al - Imran verse 110.
25 Freedom of World Trade and Culture Research published on the Internet did not mention the name of the publisher.
Globalization. p. 1.
means by which the freedom of world trade and spread Islam as long as the borders of countries opened to Muslims and as long as Muslims have been immune to the currents of corrupted ideologies.
We see that the West has not closed its doors to us because it feels immune to any foreign beliefs. As for us Muslims, we are still not immune to corrupt beliefs and most of our culture comes from the West. This is not a defect in Islam at all, but a defect in Muslims who did not understand their religion as it should.
2 - Facing the Harms of the World Trade Organization
Globalization exists whether we accept or reject it. It is true that it is our choice, not from a legal or realistic point of views that we do not plan to globalize our culture. However, the freedom of international trade requires reform of the situation at the internal level, so that the Islamic countries are capable of addressing the outside world. At the internal level, attention must be paid to the following:
A. Accurate formulation of the frameworks of Islamic culture, by reference to the Holy Book and Sunnah, and the biography of the Prophet (peace be upon him) and the books of jurisprudence adopted, which represents the Islamic culture of representation and the achievement of an Islamic agreement;
B. Rebuilding the organizational and administrative structures in Islamic countries according to these cultural frameworks, so that the culture of these structures is Islamic culture;
C. Rebuilding educational curricula in kindergartens, schools, institutes, universities, postgraduate studies, and other educational institutions in accordance with these cultural frameworks, so that the outputs of these institutions are capable of practicing Islamic culture on their soil and capable of participating in the globalization of this culture;
D. To rebuild media policies, at all levels and in all means, to represent Islamic culture as the most representative and to be able to serve and universalize this culture;
E. Rebuilding political, administrative, economic and commercial structures in Islamic countries, in accordance with the culture of the rules of Islamic law, and removing all contradictions, or intruders in these structures;
F. To create solid rules for scientific research and information, and to participate effectively in the development of technology, to the level that makes the Islamic Nation a real participant in these fields, rather than merely as a receiver;
G. Involve all those who are capable of the nation in the decision-making process, at all levels and levels, in accordance with the Islamic system26.
The researcher is aware of the severity of the difficulties, which stand in the way of achieving these aspirations, but he believes that it is not impossible, if the determination of the decision-makers in the Islamic countries to achieve, and effective coordination on them. As we have pointed out, it is the nation's choice today to ignore the globalization of culture if it is to have an interest in the era of free global trade, or the subsequent periods of free trade.
3. The duty of the media in the face of the World Trade Organization disadvantageous:-
Despite the importance of all the areas mentioned above, the media remains the most important area in terms of initial immunity and the dissemination of Islamic concepts, because it is the first aspect observed and seen by others, and they view the Islamic culture, whether negatively or positively, with contempt or admiration. In Muslim countries is able to serve the globalization of Islamic culture, and transfer it from
26 Freedom of World Trade and Culture, p.3
the state of weakness target, to the state of force intended. We do not need to wait and discuss, in order to answer this question in the negative.
The problem posed by most of the media in Muslim countries is that they do not belong to the land they found, nor to the culture do they serve. Most of them are run by secular policies that contradict the origins of Islamic culture. Instead of spreading this culture in our societies and transferring it to other societies, these agencies operate as media and cultural agencies established in Muslim countries to serve cultures that are incompatible with Islamic culture. Its programs are based on material assets of life, that the Islamic religion is not a legislative reference to the system and that the facts and ethics are not absolute, but relative, and that religion has nothing to do with life. Therefore, these organs are devoted to religion short paragraphs in their programs, has nothing to do with the problems and issues of society. Even the stations devoted to religious programs, such as the Holy Quran stations, do not offer their programs in a way and content that serves Islamic culture, not in our societies or in other societies27.
It goes without saying that the Islamic media is still unconvincing. As well as the fact that it does not represent the Islamic culture in a sincere and comprehensive representation, in what represents this culture does not offer anything convincing and deep, and is acceptable and appreciated. This on the one hand. On the other hand, the cultural antagonisms of Islamic culture fill a large area of Islamic media, especially in satellite channels, which compete in a show that supports the ignorant culture, secular philosophy, and material civilization.
On the other hand, many media workers do not have Islamic cultural visions, although they possess media skills. Many of those with Islamic culture lack the media skills needed for the satellite era. Moreover, the Islamic media, and even the Islamic cultural work, is still dependent on the creation and rhetoric, and vague public statements, while the modern media depends on facts and figures, analysis and follow-up, and good output. In fact, the origins of Islamic culture do not fear the invasion of other cultures, but what we fear is that we are still unable to highlight the origins of our culture and demonstrate its applications.
Most of all, a large number of our Countries are still unwilling to do so28.
The Islamic nation's scholars and thinkers will remain concerned about the correct position on the freedom of world trade, if it continues to be the case in Islamic countries, which, in total, are less than the Muslim Nation, because there are large numbers of Muslims outside these countries.
The situation in the Islamic countries regarding the cultural aspect can be summarized as follows:
1 - the absence of a full perception of the assets of Islamic culture and its vocabulary, and the difference
2 - not to employ the vocabulary of this culture in the areas of education, education, information and
3 - the absence of many of the vocabulary of this culture from the areas of life in the nation as a field of trade, economy, administration and politics;
1. The absence of adequate and qualified cultural and media bodies that offer a competitive alternative to other cultures that are incompatible with Islamic culture;
5- Conflicting the cultural and media apparatuses in the Islamic countries and presenting the Islamic culture in a distorted manner.
These are the characteristics of the current status of institutions and organs of Islamic culture in the Islamic countries. If we are to confront the globalization of other cultures that are incompatible with our
27 Dr. Abdul Aziz Al-Mansour, Globalization and Future Arab Options, Damascus University Journal of Economic and Legal Sciences - Volume 25, No. 2, 2009, p. 559.
28 Freedom of World Trade and Culture, former source, p. 5.
cultures in our countries, it is imperative for the Islamic countries to address this situation and find a strong alternative situation that avoids the imperfections that exist. The Islamic countries are ready not only to counter the freedom of international trade, but also to create a modern Islamic globalization of our culture. Muslims in the first Islamic centuries have become a globalization of Islam, and have reached various regions of the world29.
There is a need for a comprehensive strategy to activate the freedom of international cultural and Islamic trade. One of the most important characteristics of the cultural and information institutions in Islamic countries is that they act on the issues they face according to the strategies of reaction. When it comes to its ears that a movie or television series, or a novel, or an advertisement, somewhere in the world, has insulted Islam, or to one of his characters and symbols. Then the cultural and media circles in the Islamic countries will, in hindsight, respond to and respond to this abuse through the diplomatic and non- diplomatic means available to these countries. That it is known that this role according to the strategy of reaction, is not useful in the era of freedom of new world trade. The new world situation requires a rapid shift to action strategy, in accordance with pre-planned plans and programs, to explore the future of the world, identify potential threats to Islamic culture, carry out the necessary fortifications, and even plan attacks before receiving cultural strikes.
The Islamic Ummah (people) is today at the crossroads of two paths: either melt in other cultures, surrender to invading or invading cultures, or stand by its origins and constants, competing for the first positions among the cultures of the world. If it chooses the second way, it must defuse the causes and mobilize energies to ensure an advanced position among the cultures of the world in a rapidly changing present and a future soon to come.
2. The ICO Role in facing WTO
The decision makers in the Islamic world Nation should realize that preserving and protecting identity cannot be achieved through satellite channels, satellite dishes and satellite dishes, which are broadcasted from different countries of the world. It cannot be obtained through the presence of opposition newspapers, magazines and publications against our culture. Through the introduction of advanced communication devices, and rejection of Internet service or control. All of this has become useless today.
The strategy of preserving Islamic culture can only be achieved through a strategy for the globalization of this culture.
This will require the implementation and implementation of the decisions of the Islamic Cooperation Organization in relation to the cultural strategy of the Islamic world, which was launched at the Third Summit and reaffirmed at the Fifth Summit. , Called on OIC Member Countries to incorporate this strategy into their national cultural, educational and educational policies30.
The future is wide open for the Islamic world in the age of free global trade to unite its culture and employ modern scientific and technological capabilities in the field of information and communication to serve Islamic culture and unity as a basic and necessary introduction to the Islamic culture. , Ably and originally, the absorption of new variables, occurring in the world. These are variables that Islamic culture - as we have said - cannot be isolated from it31.
We cannot call for rejection or acceptance of globalization, because this argument is not useful, we have signed in its arms and we have drawn its means and policy from all sides, but as is the message of the Muslim man, we have to preserve the values of our nation, which says the Almighty : (You were the best
29 Freedom of World Trade and Culture, former source, p. 6.
30 Freedom of World Trade and Culture, former source, p. 8.
31 Same source, p. 8.
nation brought out to people to enjoin good and forbid evil), so we must work to alleviate the impact of globalization on our Muslim societies with all our strength32..
It is necessary to exploit the modern means adopted by globalization as means to carry out its objectives and to enter into it with the insights and guidance that Islam has brought to all mankind to turn that technology from a tool of demolition into a constructive tool, at least first to have a foothold in its world.
This is a clear confirmation of our belief in the reasons. The old means that do not address the small number, although they are required within certain limits, but they are no longer able to counter modern means, which are hundreds of millions.
The study of the Islamic discourse and its crystallization to meet the requirements of the new changes by observing the receiving party, the modern social integrations, the quality of the means, the extent of their comprehension and spread, and the observation of the other civilizations' failures and successes, to take advantage of successes and overcome failures and move from generalizations to privatizations, , From aggregates to buildings, and others,
As the great Prophet (peace be upon him) and the divine message in this way to distinguish the Mecca speech from the (Madena City) speech and to distinguish the speech of the world from the ignorant, As the Prophet (peace be upon him) said:(we are the prophets of God whom commanded us to speak to people according to their minds).33
The most important aspect of globalization is trade liberalization, is, deregulation of all types of transactions between countries, especially through WTO. Some have argued that the positive aspects of trade liberalization mean economic growth, which in turn leads to more global prosperity, while others see McDonald's as the symbol of the negative side of globalization. From their point of view, globalization poses a threat to national identity and cultural heritage, as well as a threat to the environment. It is enough to know that this is the concern of the growing countries, including the Organization of the Islamic Cooperation (OIC) member countries34.
There are those who believe that the OIC must adapt to the new role it can play in the world. Regional blocs and economic cooperation are one way of adapting and adapting. The (OIC) is in the process of finding a common Islamic market or other suitable forms of economic solidarity such as ASEAN and developing a common market such as the European countries and working to guarantee the freedom of individuals and their movement and the transfer of capital and services and goods and to consider the laws of the Islamic Cooperation Organization above the laws of Islamic countries Members of the Organization35.
The OIC can become a member of the World Trade Organization only if it is impossible within one customs border. Establishing a common market is the next step. Taking into account the experiences of the European family, the implementation of a phased policy and step after step is a wise and logical policy. Some sections of organizations, such as the European family, may have, for example, legislative and judicial identities36.
32 Anwar Ezzeldin Globalization the Controversy of the Resistance and the Programs of the Tasks Researches Center for Unity Studies January 2002 Internet (Globalization), p. 1.
33 The op. cit, p.2
34 The influence of political and commercial globalization on the Organization of the Islamic Conference: the experience of the European Union. P.1
35 The op. cit, p .2 36 The op. cit, p .3
3. The economic damage caused to Islamic countries by the objectives of the World Trade Organization
We can identify the most important goals and results obtained by Islamic countries in the light of globalization according to the following:
A) In the light of the multiplicity of patterns of production in all Islamic countries (capitalist mode of production, pre-capitalist mode of production and non-capitalist mode of production), the freedom of world trade aims at eliminating non-capitalist production patterns and eliminating their conditions for the sovereignty and conditions of the capitalist mode of production alone;
B) With the rapid increase in population in the Islamic countries, this large number of human masses must continue to be produced, produced and consumed under classical or semi-classical capitalist conditions;
C) The aim of free trade is to convert direct producers in Islamic countries into paid work, that is, to make their incomes dependent on the market only with the rapid decline of social, legal and customary arrangements that guaranteed the individual a right to an income in isolation from market considerations;
D) Globalization will inevitably lead to increased unemployment in all Islamic countries in all its forms and types, because the shift in the form of ownership of means of production to private ownership will result in the demand for labor in the context of globalization to be much lower than that of the labor force;
E) The free trade in the world is expected to deepen the economic backwardness in the Islamic countries and the loss of inter-linkages between the sectors of the national economy. The phosphate sector in a country is much stronger than the country's oil sector, which in turn is linked to the global oil market More than in the local agriculture sector and in the country itself);
F) The results of the freedom of world trade will be the export of the most polluting industries from the center to the Islamic countries and the third world and the export of industries that require high labor intensity rather than capital density;
G) Imported food prices of Islamic countries will rise due to the liberalization of trade in foodstuffs and the elimination of export subsidy policies in the countries of the Center;
H) The tendency to decline manufacturing industries in Islamic countries due to their lack of competitiveness will be due to their reliance on protectionist policies for a long period of time;
It is expected that the importance of Islamic oil will decline because it is linked to the extent of the capital’s countries' need for this oil. Alternatives to oil may be discovered because of rapid scientific progress37.
The world is looking at us today as one Islamic nation with a long civilization and a desire to build the future of its generations. The Islamic economic bloc must confront the world's giant economic blocs instead of devising narrow national policies. We must seize the opportunity to lay the foundations for Islamic economic cooperation to enter into the new world order (globalization).
37 Mohammed Adam, Factors of the emergence of globalization, the site of Medina for engineering science, the Internet site of globalization, p 5.
4. The actions taken by Islamic countries to face the damages caused by the World Trade Organization:
(A) To support economic reforms in Islamic countries and to qualify the Islamic economy to enter the twenty-first century within the global economic blocs;
(B) Establishment of an Islamic capital market and its movement within the framework of the Islamic countries, a new legal framework and legislation to be adapted to the changes taking place in international markets;
(C) freedom of movement of elements of production, production, labor force, persons and capital among Islamic countries, as well as freedom of ownership and inheritance;
(D) standardization of monetary, fiscal and customs policies, transport, transit and foreign trade;
(E) The establishment of an Islamic social economic observatory with a task is to evaluate and propose Islamic economic policies and to identify differences and factors to avoid them. This requires a consultative cell of Islamic experts charged with thinking about Islamic economic policies in light of international changes. Islamic countries can play an important role in accomplishing such a task;
(F) The vision of the future and the development of a future vision for the location of Islamic countries in the regional and international environment, and envisage a specific concept of Islamic security and predict the possibility of the Islamic common market and the associated issues of protection, support, competition and economic freedom;
(G) To develop the strategy of building competitiveness, which is one of the most important elements of the supreme strategy for the comprehensive development of Islamic countries;
(H) Upgrading human capacities at the level of Islamic countries38;
Accordingly, many Muslim writers believe that Islam contradicts the goals of freedom of world trade, but they differ in ways in the face of globalization, some of them see the face of hardness and closure and some of them see the need to fortify and integrate them. Others see its use to spread Islam and its teachings with the reform of our situation.
While we recognize the fairness of all these views, we are pessimistic about the application of any of them. Muslims are not the decision-makers, but the enemies are the ones controlling, and we only have to apply. The evidence has shown that if the United States asked a Muslim country to attack another Muslim country, this state would not be able to use Muslims to strike the other Muslim people.
In all cases, the West regards Islam as a challenging force to apply the freedom of world trade. In this sense, the United States of America is working to make the Islamic countries weak and dependent countries and unable to enter modern human civilization.
A. Globalization and Freedom of world cultural trade is the process of spreading American culture to the world. Some American writers are trying to suggest that there are negative factors in cultures for other countries, leading to American culture dominating these cultures. As an elite culture or a culture of restricted cultures, are religiously oriented cultures that use a language that is understood only by a few elite or clergy and therefore does not meet the needs of the contemporary human being sought in the exotic or invasive cultures of their society. American culture comes as a culture of no capacity and
38 Mohammed Adam, op. cit, p. 5.
influence, as in the freedom of global economic trade, which has been able to break down geographical barriers between human societies. Because of the development of technology, which has helped to spread it;
B. Most countries, despite their accession to the World Trade Organization, prefer to remain in the private sector. And that the countries that have abolished the private sector have significantly reduced their economic and financial levels;
C. Sticking to religious beliefs is a major obstacle to the Globalization and WTO. The freedom of world trade has prompted terrorist organizations to exploit the freedom of global trade to build up against the World Trade Organization. The striking of the World Trade Towers was the best proof of that;
D. The peoples, however advanced, are difficult to abandon their national identity. It is in this sense that the World Trade Organization has raised national sentiments in many countries of the world, in particular what we see in many countries that are trying to uphold their national identity. Attempts to secede such as Catalonia in Spain and the Kurds in Iraq in 2017 are proof of the peoples' adherence to national identity;
E. The difference of cultures among peoples is vital in adhering to the specific historical and cultural specificity of all peoples. Universalization of the policy of cultural unification through education and the media leads to the destruction of cultural identity;
a. Economic factors must not be linked to religious believes, and that religious freedom is considered by many peoples as the human standard that regulates its life and human relations between individuals.
b. Developing nations must be given the right to develop the public sector in the basic industries of each country. These peoples are unable to promote their economy without the public sector.
c. The adoption of absolute freedom without restrictions leads to the use of profitable companies by spreading inhumane values and values that undermine human dignity. The freedom of information and education must be restricted in accordance with the principles of the development of human capacities and the promotion of moral values among peoples.
d. The Globalization and freedom of world trade are imposed on the developing countries, which requires them to exploit their membership in the WTO in reducing the danger of free world trade and that the minority organizations of ASEAN, the League of Arab Countries and African Unity should confront the freedom of world trade strongly and rigorously.
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