# On translation surfaces in 4-dimensional Euclidean space

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Volume 20, Number 2, December 2016 Available online at http://acutm.math.ut.ee

### Euclidean space

Kadri Arslan, Beng¨u Bayram, Bet¨ul Bulca, and G¨unay ¨Ozt¨urk

Abstract. We consider translation surfaces in Euclidean spaces. Firstly, we give some results of translation surfaces in the 3-dimensional Euclidean space E3

. Further, we consider translation surfaces in the 4-dimensional Euclidean space E4

. We prove that a translation surface is flat in E4

if and only if it is either a hyperplane or a hypercylinder. Finally we give necessary and sufficient condition for a quadratic trian-gular B´ezier surface in E4

to become a translation surface.

1. Introduction

Surfaces of constant mean curvature, H-surfaces and those of constant Gaussian curvature, K-surfaces in the 3-dimensional Euclidean space E3 have been studied extensively. An interesting class of surfaces in E3 is that

of translation surfaces, which can be parameterized locally as X(u, v) = (u, v, f (u) + g(v)), where f and g are smooth functions.

From the definition, it is clear that translation surfaces are double curved surfaces. Therefore, translation surfaces are made up of quadrilateral, that is, four sided, facets. Because of this property, translation surfaces are used in architecture to design and construct free-form glass roofing structures (see [4]). Generally, these glass roofings are made up of triangular glass facets or curved glass panes. But, since quadrangular glass elements lead to economic advantages and more transparency compared to a triangular grid, translation surface are used as a basis for roofings.

Scherk’s surface, obtained by H. Scherk [8], is the only non flat minimal surface, that can be represented as a translation surface.

2010 Mathematics Subject Classification. 53C40; 53C42.

Key words and phrases. Translation surface; mean curvature; Gaussian curvature; sec-ond fundamental map.

http://dx.doi.org/10.12697/ACUTM.2016.20.11 123

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Translation surfaces have been investigated from various viewpoints by many differential geometers. L. Verstraelen et al. [10] have investigated minimal translation surfaces in n-dimensional Euclidean spaces. H. Liu [7] has given a classification of translation surfaces with constant mean curva-ture or constant Gaussian curvacurva-ture in the 3-dimensional Euclidean space E3 and the 3-dimensional Minkowski space E3

1. In [5], W. Goemans proved

classification theorems of Weingarten translation surfaces. D. W. Yoon [11] has studied translation surfaces in the 3-dimensional Minkowski space whose Gauss map G satisfies the condition ∆G = AG, A ∈ Mat(3, R), where ∆ denotes the Laplacian of the surface with respect to the induced metric and M at(3, R) is the set of 3 × 3 real matrices. M. I. Munteanu and A. I. Nistor [6] have studied the second fundamental form of translation surfaces in E3. They have given a non-existence result for polynomial translation surfaces in E3 with vanishing second Gaussian curvature KII. They have also classified

those translation surfaces for which KII and H are proportional.

In this paper, we consider translation surfaces in the 4-dimensional Eu-clidean space E4. We prove that a translation surface is flat in E4if and only

if it is either a hyperplane or a hypercylinder. Finally, we give a necessary and sufficient condition for a quadratic triangular B´ezier surface in E4 to become a translation surface.

2. Basic concepts

Let M be a smooth surface in Engiven by a patch X(u, v), (u, v) ∈ D ⊂

E2. The tangent space to M at a point p = X(u, v) of M is span {Xu, Xv}.

In the chart (u, v), the coefficients of the first fundamental form of M are given by

E= hXu, Xui , F = hXu, Xvi , G = hXv, Xvi ,

where h, i is the Euclidean inner product. We assume that W2 = EG −F2 6= 0, i.e., the surface patch X(u, v) is regular. For each p ∈ M, consider the de-composition TpEn= TpM⊕ Tp⊥M where Tp⊥M is the orthogonal component

of TpM in En.

Let χ(M ) and χ⊥(M ) be the space of smooth vector fields tangent to M

and the space of smooth vector fields normal to M , respectively. Given any local vector fields X1, X2 tangent to M , consider the second fundamental

map h : χ(M ) × χ(M) → χ⊥(M ),

h(Xi, Xj) = e∇XiXj− ∇XiXj 1 ≤ i, j ≤ 2, (2.1)

where ∇ and ∇ are the induced connection of M and the Riemannian con-∼ nection of En, respectively. This map is well-defined, symmetric and bilinear.

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For any orthonormal frame field {N1, N2, ..., Nn−2} of M, the shape

oper-ator A: χ⊥(M ) × χ(M) → χ(M) is defined by

ANkXj = −( e∇XjNk)

T, X

j ∈ χ(M).

This operator is bilinear, self-adjoint and satisfies the condition hANkXj, Xii = hh(Xi, Xj), Nki = c

k

ij, 1 ≤ i, j ≤ 2, 1 ≤ k ≤ n − 2, (2.2)

where ck

ij are the coefficients of the second fundamental form.

The equation (2.1) is called the Gauss formula. One has h(Xi, Xj) =

n−2

X

k=1

ckijNk, 1 ≤ i, j ≤ 2.

Then the Gaussian curvature K of a regular patch X(u, v) is given by

K = 1 W2 n−2 X k=1 (ck11ck22− (ck12)2). (2.3) Further, the mean curvature vector of a regular patch X(u, v) is given by

− →H = 1 2W2 n−2 X k=1 (ck11G+ ck22E− 2ck12F)Nk. (2.4)

The norm of the mean curvature vector −→H

is called the mean curvature of M . The mean curvature H and the Gaussian curvature K play the most important roles in differential geometry for surfaces (see [1]).

Recall that a surface M is said to be flat (respectively minimal) if its Gaussian curvature (respectively mean curvature) vanishes identically (see [2]).

The kth mean curvature of M is defined by Hk=

1 2W2(c

k

11G+ ck22E− 2ck12F), 1 ≤ k ≤ n − 2.

The surface M is said to be Hk-minimal if the kthmean curvature Hkvanishes

identically.

We denote by R the curvature tensor associated with ∇, R(X, Y )Z = ∇X∇YZ− ∇Y∇XZ− ∇[X,Y ]Z.

The equations of Gauss and Ricci are given, respectively, by

hR(X, Y )Z, W i = hh(X, W ), h(Y, Z)i − hh(X, Z)h(Y, W )i , D

R⊥(X, Y )ξ, ηE= h[Aξ, Aη]X, Y i ,

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3. Translation surfaces in E3

Let α, β : R −→ E3 be two Euclidean space curves. Put α(u) = (f1(u),

f2(u), f3(u)) and β(v) = (g1(v), g2(v), g3(v)). Then the sum of α and β can

be considered as a surface patch X : E2 −→ E3,

X(u, v) = α(u) + β(v), u0 < u < u1, v0 < v < v1,

which is a surface in E3, where the tangent vectors αand βmust be linearly

independent for any u and v.

A basis for the tangent space is given by Xu = (f1 ′(u), f 2 ′(u), f 3 ′(u)), Xv = (g1 ′(v), g 2 ′(v), g 3 ′(v)).

The unit normal vector field N can be given by (see [3])

N = p 1 1 − hα′, βi f2 ′g 3 ′− f 3 ′g 2 ′, f 3 ′g 1 ′− f 1 ′g 3 ′, f 1 ′g 2 ′− f 2 ′g 1 ′.

Definition 3.1. A surface M defined as the sum of two plane curves α(u) = (u, 0, f (u)) and β(v) = (0, v, g(v)) is called a translation surface in E3. So, a translation surface is defined by means of the Monge patch

X(u, v) = (u, v, f (u) + g(v)).

Example 3.1. Consider the translation surfaces in E3 given by

a) f (u) = cosh(u

3), g(v) = sin( v

3) (see Figure 1(A)), b) f (u) = sin(3u), g(v) = cos(3v) (see Figure 1(B)).

(a) Translation surface. (b) The egg box surface.

Figure 1. Translation surfaces in E3.

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Proposition 3.1 (see [7]). Let M be a translation surface in E3. Then

the Gaussian and the mean curvature of M can be given by

K = f ′′g′′ (1 + (f′)2+ (g)2)2 and H = f ′′(1 + (g)2) + g′′(1 + (f)2) 2(1 + (f′)2+ (g)2)32 .

From the previous proposition, one can get the following results.

Theorem 3.1. Let M be a translation surface in E3. Then M has van-ishing Gaussian curvature if and only if either M is a plane or a part of a cylinder with the axis parallel to (1, 0, a) or (0, 1, c), where a, c are real constants.

Theorem 3.2 (see [8]). Let M be a translation surface in E3. If M has constant Gaussian curvature, then M is congruent to a cylinder. So, K = 0. Corollary 3.1. Let M be a translation surface in E3. Then M is a min-imal surface if and only if

f′′

1 + (f′)2 = −

g′′

1 + (g′)2 = a,

where a is a non-zero constant.

Theorem 3.3 (see [8]). Let M be a translation surface in E3. ThenM is

minimal if and only if M is a surface of Scherk given by the parametrization f(u) = 1

alog |cos(au)| , g(v) = −1

alog |cos(av)| , where a is a non-zero constant.

Theorem 3.4 (see [7]). Let M be a translation surface with constant mean curvature H6= 0 in the 3-dimensional Euclidean space E3. Then M is congruent to a surface given by the parametrization

f(u) = − √ 1 − a2 2H p 1 − 4H2u2, g(v) = −av,

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4. Translation surfaces in E4

Let α, β : R −→ E4 be two curves in E4. Put α(u) = (f1(u), f2(u), f3(u),

f4(u)) and β(v) = (g1(v), g2(v), g3(v), g4(v)). Then the sum of α and β can

be considered as a surface patch X : E2 −→ E4,

X(u, v) = α(u) + β(v), u0 < u < u1, v0 < v < v1,

which is a surface in E4.

Definition 4.1. A surface M defined as the sum of two space curves α(u) = (u, 0, f3(u), f4(u)) and β(v) = (0, v, g3(v), g4(v)) is called a

transla-tion surface in E4.So, a translation surface is defined by a patch

X(u, v) = (u, v, f3(u) + g3(v), f4(u) + g4(v)). (4.1)

The tangent space of M is spanned by the vector fields Xu = (1, 0, f3 ′(u), f 4 ′(u)), Xv = (0, 1, g3 ′(v), g 4 ′(v)).

Hence the coefficients of the first fundamental form of the surface are E = hXu, Xui = 1 + (f3 ′)2+ (f 4 ′)2, F = hXu, Xvi = f3 ′g 3 ′+ f 4 ′g 4 ′, G= hXv, Xvi = 1 + (g3 ′)2+ (g 4 ′)2,

where h , i is the standard scalar product in E4.Since the surface M is

non-degenerate, kXu× Xvk =

EG− F2 6= 0. For the later use we define a

smooth function W as W = kXu× Xvk .

The second partial derivatives of X(u, v) are given by Xuu = (0, 0, f3 ′′(u), f 4 ′′(u)), Xuv = (0, 0, 0, 0), Xvv = (0, 0, g3 ′′(v), g 4 ′′(v)). (4.2)

Further, the normal space of M is spanned by the orthonormal vector fields N1 = 1 p e E(−f 3 ′(u), −g 3 ′(v), 1, 0), N2 = 1 p e E fW ( eF f3 ′(u) − eEf 4 ′(u), eF g 3 ′(v) − eEg 4 ′(v), − eF , eE), (4.3)

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where e E = 1 + (f3 ′)2+ (g 3 ′)2, e F = f3 ′f 4 ′+ g 3 ′g 4 ′, e G= 1 + (f4 ′)2+ (g 4 ′)2 f W = q e E eG− eF2.

Using (4.2) and (4.3), we can calculate the coefficients of the second fun-damental form as follows:

c111= f3 ′′ p e E , c122= g3 ′′ p e E , c112= c212= 0, c211= Efe 4′′− eF f3′′ p e E fW , c222= Ege 4′′− eF g3′′ p e E fW . (4.4)

Using (4.4) and (2.2), the second fundamental tensors ANα become

AN1 = 1 W2   f3′′ √ e E 0 0 √g3′′ e E   , AN2 = 1 W2    e Ef4√′′− eF f3′′ e E fW 0 0 Ege 4√′′− eF g3′′ e E fW    . By (4.4) together with (2.3) and (2.4), we get the following result.

Proposition 4.1. Let M be a translation surface in E4. Then the Gauss-ian curvature and mean curvature vector field of M can be given by

K= f3 ′′g 3 ′′Ge− (f 3 ′′g 4 ′′+ g 3 ′′f 4 ′′) eF+ f 4 ′′g 4 ′′Ee f W 2W2 and − →H = f3′′G+ g3′′E 2pEWe 2 N1+ G(f4′′Ee− f3′′Fe) + E(g4′′Ee− g3′′Fe) 2pE feW W2 N2.

From this proposition, one can get the following results.

Theorem 4.1. Let M be a translation surface in E4. Then M has van-ishing Gaussian curvature if and only if either M is a plane or a part of a hyper-cylinder of the form

X(u, v) = (0, v, b3+ g3(v), b4+ g4(v)) + u(1, 0, a3, a4)

or

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where ai, bi, ci, di (i = 3, 4) are real constants, and b3, b4, d3, and d4 can be

taken to be 0.

Theorem 4.2 (see [3]). Let M be a translation surface in E4. Then M is minimal if and only if either M is a plane or

fk(u) = ck c23+ c2 4 log cos(√au) + cu+ eku, gk(v) = ck c23+ c24  − log cos(√bv) + dv+ pkv, k= 3, 4

where ck, ek, pk, a, b, c, d are real constants with a >0 and b > 0.

For the general case of the previous theorem see [10].

Proposition 4.2. Let M be a translation surface in E4 given by the sur-face patch (4.1). If the functions f3(u) and g3(v) are linear polynomials,

then M is H1-minimal.

Proof. The first mean curvature of the translation surface M is H1 = f3′′G+ g3′′E

2pEWe 2

.

Suppose that f3(u) and g3(v) are linear polynomials of the form

f3(u) = a1u+ a2, g3(v) = b1v+ b2.

Then the first mean curvature of the translation surface M vanishes

identi-cally. 

5. B´ezier translation surfaces in E4

Quadratic triangular B´ezier surfaces in E4 can be parametrized with the

help of barycentric coordinates u, v, and t = 1 − u − v as follows: s(u, v, t) = X

i+j+k=2

Bijk2 (u, v, t)bijk,

where

B2ijk= 2! i!j!k!u

ivjtk

are basis functions and bijk are control points (see [9]).

A quadratic triangular B´ezier surface M ⊂ E4 can be parametrized with

the help of affine parameters u, v as follows: X(u, v) = 1

2xu

2+ yuv + 1

2zv

2+ wu + cv + d, (5.1)

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Furthermore, a quadratic triangular B´ezier surface can be considered as the sum of two curves

α(u) = 4 X i=1 1 2xiu 2+ w iu+ ai, β(v) = 4 X i=1 1 2ziv 2+ c iv+ bi.

Corollary 5.1. Let M be a quadratic triangular B´ezier surface in E4 given by (5.1). If

w1 = 1, x1 = z1= c1= d1 = 0,

c2 = 1, x2 = z2= w2 = d2 = 0, (5.2)

y= 0, then M is a translation surface.

Proof. If the equalities (5.2) hold, then

X(u, v) = (u, v, r(u, v), s(u, v)), where r(u, v) = 1 2x3u 2+1 2z3v 2+ w 3u+ c3v+ d3, s(u, v) = 1 2x4u 2+1 2z4v 2+ w 4u+ c4v+ d4.

So the B´ezier surface becomes a translation surface of the form f3(u) = 1 2x3u 2+ w 3u+ a3; g3(v) = 1 2z3v 2+ c 3v+ b3, f4(u) = 1 2x4u 2+ w 4u+ a4; g4(v) = 1 2z4v 2+ c 4v+ b4, (5.3) where di = ai+ bi, i= 3, 4. 

Example 5.1. We construct a 3D geometric shape model in E3 by using the projection of the B´ezier translation surface in equation (5.3), which is given by X(u, v) = (u, v, −u 2 2 ,− v2 2 ), where x3 = −1, z4 = −1, w3 = a3 = z3 = c3 = b3 = x4 = w4 = a4 = c4 = b4= 0.

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Furthermore, we plot the graph (see Figure 2) of the given surface by using the Maple plotting command

plot3d([x + y, z, w], x = a..b, y = c..d).

Figure 2. The projection of B´ezier translation surface in E3.

References

[1] B. Y. Chen, Pseudo-umbilical surfaces with constant Gauss curvature, Proc. Edin-burgh Math. Soc. (Series 2) 18 (1972), 143–148.

[2] B. Y. Chen, Geometry of Submanifolds, Dekker, New York, 1973.

[3] F. Dillen, L. Verstraelen, L. Vrancken, and G. Zafindratafa, Classification of polyno-mial translation hypersurfaces of finite type, Results Math. 27 (1995), 244–249. [4] J. Glymph, D. Schelden, C. Ceccato, J. Mussel, and H. Schober, A parametric

[5] W. Goemans, Surfaces in three-dimensional Euclidean and Minkowski space, in: Par-ticular a Study of Weingarten Surfaces, PhD Thesis, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven-Faculty of Science, 2010.

[6] M. Munteanu and A. I. Nistor, On the geometry of the second fundamental form of translation surfaces in E3

, Houston J. Math. 37 (2011), 1087–1102.

[7] H. Liu, Translation surfaces with constant mean curvature in 3-dimensional spaces, J. Geom. 64 (1999), 141–149.

[8] H. F. Scherk, Bemerkungen ¨uber die kleinste Fl¨ache innerhalb gegebener Grenzen, J. Reine Angew. Math. 13 (1835), 185–208.

[9] T. W. Sederberg and D. C. Anderson, Steiner surface patches, IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 5 (1985), 23–36.

[10] L. Verstraelen, J. Walrave, and S. Yaprak, The minimal translation surface in Eu-clidean space, Soochow J. Math. 20 (1994), 77–82.

[11] D. W. Yoon, On the Gauss map of translation surfaces in Minkowski 3-space, Tai-wanese J. Math. 6 (2002), 389–398.

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Uludag University, Art and Science Faculty, Department of Mathematics, Bursa, Turkey

Balikesir University, Art and Science Faculty, Department of Mathematics, Balikesir, Turkey

Uludag University, Art and Science Faculty, Department of Mathematics, Bursa, Turkey

Kocaeli University, Art and Science Faculty, Department of Mathematics, 41380, Kocaeli,Turkey

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