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The Kingdom Plantae is composed of plants that are autotrophic, multicellular eukaryotes.


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Kingdom: Plantae


The Kingdom Plantae is composed of plants that are autotrophic, multicellular eukaryotes.

Plant cells have cell walls made of cellulose. There are approximately 300,000 plant species that conduct


They include mosses (Bryophytes), ferns (Pteridophyta) and phanerogams (Gymnosperms and Angiosperms).

Their leaves absorb sunlight and convert it to glucose and have a waxy coat on them to prevent water loss.

Plants reproduce asexually and sexually


Group: Bryophytes

Bryophytes, also known as mosses, is an informal group consisting of three divisions of non-vascular land plants and it includes approximately 20.000 species. Members of the group

have no vascular tissue or wood to lend them

structural support, nor do they have large leaves or showy cones or flowers.

Bryophytes produce enclosed reproductive structures

(gametangia and sporangia) and they reproduce by spores. The group contains 3 divisions;

Marchantiophyta, Anthocerotophyta, and



Division: Marchantiophyta


Marchantiophyta, commonly known as hepatics or

liverworts, includes about 9000 species. Its

members can be found in almost all terrestrial and

freshwater environments. They have a

gametophyte-dominant life cycle, have a

photosynthetic gametophyte, usually with

indeterminate growth that develops from a

protonema and produce gametophores that rise

from the protonemata and bear the gametangia,

antheridia, and archegonia. The sporophyte is short-

lived and determinate in its growth. have a

photosynthetic gametophyte, usually with

indeterminate growth that develops from a

protonema. The division members produce

gametophores that rise from the protonemata and

bear the gametangia, antheridia, and

archegonia. The sporophyte is short-lived and

determinate in its growth.


Division: Anthocerotophyta


Division Anthocerotophyta, also known Hornworts, includes about 150 species.

The division is characterized by elongated horn- shaped sporophyte.

As in mosses and liverworts, the flattened, green plant body of a hornwort is the gametophyte plant.

The division contains two classes.

Anthocerotopsida is the largest and best known of

these, with two orders and three families.


Division: Bryophyta


The division includes approximately 10,000 species, 700 genera, and about 110-120 families. Its members can be found all around the world and inhabit diverse habitats.

The conspicuous green leafy shoots are the

gametophytes, haploid organisms, on which the diploid

embryo develops into a mature sporophyte. The

sporophyte is chlorophyllose and photosynthetic only in

early stages of development, and it is mostly dependent

on the gametophyte.


Group: Pteridophytes (Ferns)


Pteridophytes, also known as ferns, include about 12 000 species of vascular plants that do not produce seeds or flowers, reproducing instead via the production of spores. Sexual reproduction is accomplished by the release of spores, which develop in special structures called sporangia. The sporangia usually occur in clusters called sori, found on the underside of leaves. Fern leaves, often called fronds, usually arise from underground stems. The primary divisions of compound leaves are referred to as pinnae (singular: pinna), and further divisions of pinnae are known as pinnules.


Ferns are one of the oldest groups of plants on Earth,

with a fossil record dating back to the 383-393 million

years ago. Recent divergence time estimates suggest

they may be even older, possibly having first evolved as

far back as 430 million years ago. But many of the

current families and species did not appear until about

145 million years ago in the early Cretaceous, after

flowering plants came to dominate many environments.


Importance Of Bryophytes

Bryophytes play a vital role in being among the first colonizers of disturbed sites and they stabilize the soil surface, thereby reducing erosion, while at the same time reducing the evaporation of water,

making more available for succeeding plants. Most Bryophytes are not of any direct economic

importance, and none are a food source for humans.

Sphagnum members are economically the most

important mosses. The harvesting, processing, and sale of

Sphagnum is a multimillion-dollar industry.

Sphagnum is used in horticulture, as an energy

source and, to a limited extent, in the extraction of organic products, in whiskey production, and as



Division: Psilophyta


Members of the division are the only living vascular plants

to lack both roots and leaves. Although they have been

considered “primitive,” recent developmental and

molecular evidence suggests that the group may actually

be reduced from fern-like ancestors. The psilophyte stem

lacks roots; it is anchored instead by a horizontally

creeping stem called a rhizome


The erect portion of the stem bears paired enations, outgrowths which look like miniature leaves, but unlike true leaves, the enations have no vascular tissue. These paired outgrowths lie immediately below the spore-producing synangia, which produce the spores. The synangia appear to be the product of three sporangia which became fused over the course of evolution and are borne on the tip of a short lateral branch. This is another feature in which the psilophytes differ from other living vascular plants; all other such plants produce their sporangia on their leaves. When the synangia mature, they open to release yellow to whitish spores, from which the gametophyte plants will later emerge.

The gametophytes are very small, usually less than two

millimeters long. They are subterranean and saprophytic,

getting their nutrition by absorbing substances dissolved in

the environment.


Division: Lycopodiophyta


Lycopodiophyta, also known as Lycopods, includes 1 subclass, 3

orders, each with one family, 5 genera, about 1,300 species. The

division is one of the oldest lineages of living vascular plants and

contains extinct plants. Its earliest fossils are from 428–410

million years ago. Its members reproduce by shedding spores

and have macroscopic alternation of generations, although some

are homosporous while others are heterosporous. The division

contains some of the most primitive living species that

reproduce by shedding spores and have macroscopic alternation

of generations. Members of the division have a protostele, and

the sporophyte generation is dominant


Division: Sphenophyta


The Sphenophyta is a spore-bearing division of vascular plants with both living and fossil members.

Although division members were abundant and

diverse in the late Paleozoic Era, Equisetum members

are the only surviving represents of the division.


Division: Pterophyta


Pterophyta is the largest division of living ferns, including about

11000 species worldwide. Sporangia of the division members

arise from a single epidermal cell and not from a group of cells

as in eusporangiate ferns. The sporangia are typically covered

with a scale called the indusium, which can cover the whole

sorus, forming a ring or cup around the sorus, or can also be

strongly reduced to completely absent. Many leptosporangiate

ferns have an annulus around the sporangium, which ejects the




Glime, J. M. 2017. Anthocerotophyta. Chapt. 2-8. In: Glime, J. M. Bryophyte Ecology.

Volume 1. Physiological Ecology. Ebook

Husby Ch. E., Walkowiak R. J.. 2012. An Introduction to the Genus Equisetum ( Horsetail ) and the Class Equisetopsida (Sphenopsida) as a whole. IEA Paper

Yatskievych G. 2003. Pteridophytes (Ferns). Encyclopedia of Life Science. DOI: 10.1038/


Url1.: https://meyeremma.weebly.com/kingdom-plantae.html

Url2.: http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/plants/bryophyta/bryophyta.html Url3.: http://tolweb.org/Bryophyta

Url4.: https://blogs.ubc.ca/biology321/?page_id=39

Url5.: https://www.anbg.gov.au/bryophyte/classification-identification.html Url6.: https://www.anbg.gov.au/bryophyte/classification-mosses.html Url7.: https://www.fleppc.org/ID_book/ferns.pdf

Url8.: https://www.amerfernsoc.org/about-ferns

Url9.: http://faculty.collegeprep.org/~bernie/sciproject/project/Kingdoms/Plantae3/division


Url10.: http://palaeos.com/plants/lycopodiophyta/lycopodiales.html


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