• Sonuç bulunamadı

Postoperative Vaginal Brachytherapy of a Patient with Endometrial Cancer: Case Presentation


Academic year: 2021

Share "Postoperative Vaginal Brachytherapy of a Patient with Endometrial Cancer: Case Presentation"

Daha Fazlasını Göster ( sayfa)

Tam metin








Postoperative Vaginal Brachytherapy of a Patient with

Endometrial Cancer: Case Presentation

Received: January 08, 2019 Accepted: February 19, 2019 Online: April 10, 2019 Accessible online at: www.onkder.org

Turk J Oncol 2019;34(Supp 1):90–3 doi: 10.5505/tjo.2019.1919 CASE REPORT

Hakan EREN, Yusuf Ziya HAZERAL, Senem ALANYALI, Zeynep ÖZSARAN Department of Radiation Oncology, Ege University, Faculty of Medicine, İzmir-Turkey


Case: A 39-year-old woman presented with an abnormal postmenopausal vaginal bleeding, and probe curettage was performed for diagnostic purposes. She was diagnosed with endometrial cancer. She un-derwent total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and pelvic lymph node dis-section (TAH+BSO+PPLND). Pathology specimen revealed endometrioid adenocarcinoma sized 2 cm with histologic grade 2. Tumor had half inner myometrial invasion. Lymphovasculary invasion and lymph node metastases (0/17) were not reported. She was referred to the radiation oncology department for intracavitary brachytherapy.

Keywords: Endometrial cancer; quality control; three dimensional (3D) brachytherapy treatment planning. Copyright © 2019, Turkish Society for Radiation Oncology


Treatment Steps of Postoperative Three-Dimen-sional (3D) Brachytherapy

1. Gynecological examination: Pre-treatment

gynecological assessment is necessary to rule out the early recurrences, to ensure postoperative healing of the vaginal stump, and to choose the optimal type and the size of the applicator. For optimal healing, at least a 4-week wait between operation and brachytherapy is needed.[1]

2. Applicator selection: The ABS (American

Brachytherapy Society) recommends that applicator se-lection should be based on patient anatomy, target vol-ume geometry, and physician judgment.[2,3] However, if cylinder size is inappropriate for the patient, air gaps between the surface and applicator may occur, and they may cause low-dose areas. On the other hand, no study regarding the difference patterns of recurrences between ovoid and cylinder applicators has been published to date. For the patient mentioned above, no healing

prob-lem was seen in gynecological examination, and a 3.5-cm sized multichannel applicator was chosen.

3. Application: Patient should be informed about

the procedure, and consent form should be taken in advance. Enema is recommended a night before the application. Placing the applicators horizontally also helps to reduce rectum and bladder doses.[4,5] In our daily clinical practice, we empty the bladder with the Foley catheter and filled with 150 cc isotonic saline solution. Placing seeds or marking the vaginal stump with the radiopaque material would help to ensure the close contact of the applicators and the vaginal stump. In our department, we do not usually place seed but give extra attention to the applicator position during insertion. Multichannel cylinders provide advantage in regard to dosimetric goals such as improving target coverage and decreasing dose to the rectum and blad-der.[2] We routinely use multichannel applicators in our department.

4. Imaging: To define target volumes, 3D imaging

is being used. After the insertion of the applicator, we

Dr. Hakan EREN Ege Üniversitesi,

Radyasyon Onkolojisi Anabilim Dalı, İzmir-Turkey



Eren et al.

Postop Vaginal Brachytherapy of an Patient with Endometrial Cancer

low the physician to personalize the dose distribution as per each patient’s anatomy. According to CTV, an active source position of 4.5 cm was determined with 0.5-cm step size for all nine catheters (Fig. 2). The dose normalization point of the patient was manually de-termined to a depth of 0.5 cm from the surface of the multichannel applicator.

8. Dose prescription: The current source (source

activity controlled by certificates and measurements) was selected, and the patient’s dose was defined as the normalization point and the 100% isodose line with 7 Gy and three fractions.

9. Dose calculation: The dose calculation

proto-col of AAPM TG-43 (AAPM: The American Associ-ation of Physicists in Medicine, TG-43: Task Group 43) is accepted as the standard protocol, and is used in all commercial brachytherapy treatment planning systems.[6,7] Nucletron Oncentra Brachy v4.5.1 treat-ment planning system, which can perform the 3D brachytherapy planning in our clinic, uses AAPM TG 43 in dose calculation.

10. Dose volume histogram (DVH): The new

gen-eration of 3D planning systems can generate DVHs. Hence, the dose distribution of any contoured target volume and organs at risk can be defined by its DVH. The calculated dose information of the patient opti-mized by the “manual Dwell weight/times” method [8], and the DVH is shown in Figure 3.

11. Quality control: Generally, multichannel

cylin-der brachytherapy applicator is used as an applicator in the gynecological brachytherapy applications. After each use of these applicators, it is necessary to sterilize and preserve their sterilization until application. Place-transfer our case to the CT (computed tomography)

simulator with a dedicated bed system that prioritizes stabilization of the patient. Images acquired at slice thickness of 3 mm were loaded to the planning system.

5. Contouring: We follow European Society for

Radiotherapy & Oncology (ESTRO) recommendations for target volume contouring.[3] According to ESTRO, protocol clinical target volume (CTV) is defined as up-per third of the vagina that is 3–5 cm long and 0.5 cm deep. Similarly, ABS also recommends to treat 3–5 cm of the vagina and to prescribe the dose to the surface or 0.5 cm depth of the vagina.[2] In our case, accord-ing to the risk assessment, CTV was defined as 4 cm of the vagina, and dose was prescribed to the 0.5 cm depth of vagina. Dose per fraction is 7 Gy. Organs at risk include bladder, rectum, sigmoid, perineal skin, urethra, and small intestine. To decrease the side ef-fects, the dose of these organs should be kept below the recommended doses. The ABS guideline recommends to report the dose of 2cc (D2cc)s of the OAR. There-fore, to keep D2ccs for rectum, sigmoid, and bladder less than 70–75 Gy, 75 Gy, and 90 Gy, respectively, are appropriate.

6. Applicator definition: The catheters of

multi-channel applicator with a 3.5-cm diameter were man-ually identified in the CT of an operated patient with endometrial cancer who had a 3-mm slice thickness in HDR brachytherapy treatment planning (Fig. 1).

7. Source loading: The 3D imaging provides

visu-alization of the catheter location because of anatomy, calculation of the dose in every part of the patient, the location and amplitude of the brachytherapy nature, and the calculation of dosimetric indices. These


92 Turk J Oncol 2019;34(Supp 1):90–3 doi: 10.5505/tjo.2019.1919

ment of the applicator to the patient is performed in a suitable application room in the clinic or operating room. The patient must then be transferred to the CT device for imaging. Care should be taken to ensure the stability of the applicator in the patient transport oper-ations between the application room-CT and the CT-treatment room. Some developed patient transfer and treatment table systems (DIACOR Zephyr HDR) are available (Fig. 4).

After the scan, the patient’s data are sent to the plan-ning system in the DICOM format. After the

contour-ing, the treatment information indicating the treatment dose and fraction as well as the applicator diameter and filled applicator catheters should be reported in writ-ing before startwrit-ing the plannwrit-ing process. Some litera-ture state that non-written notifications can cause acci-dents by causing confusion and some accident reports that are formed by this lack of application. While the treatment plan is done, applicators should be careful about the orientation markers. There are several stages during brachytherapy treatment planning, and once these have been appropriately done, the patient

plan-Fig. 2. Information of the Patient’s source loading.



Eren et al.

Postop Vaginal Brachytherapy of an Patient with Endometrial Cancer

ning information data are taken through a printer for reporting and control. All stages of the treatment plan approved here are checked with print data. This set of data is a summary of the accepted treatment plan and shows all stages. Print data contain the follow-ing parts: Patient Information, Treatment Unit, Cal-ibration Data, Treatment Data, Dose Normalization, Optimization and Prescription, Source Positions, Catheter (channel) Times, Total Treatment Time, Source Coordinates and Times, Applicator Points. Our patient plan sent to the treatment device is up-loaded to the system and checked with print data. Here, the patient information and all the catheters of multichannel that are actively filled during the plan-ning are checked. For the fraction, dose and total treatment time are checked by comparing the print data and the pre-treatment report. After the CT scan, the patient is transferred to the treatment device for treating, and then the cylinder orientation is checked after the applicator’s catheters are connected to the treatment device. After print data and the treatment device have been checked, patient treatment is initi-ated, and the patient treatment is completed while the patient is followed up with camera systems.


Intracavitary brachytherapy is the preferred treatment modality in early-stage intermediate-risk group of patients. The 3D brachytherapy provides better delin-eation of the anatomic structures, dose evaluation with DVHs and optimization.

Informed consent: No.

Peer-review: Externally peer-reviewed. Conflict of Interest: None declared.

Authorship contributions: Concept – H.E., Y.Z.H., S.A., Z.Ö.; Design – H.E., Y.Z.H., S.A., Z.Ö.; Supervision – H.E., Y.Z.H., S.A., Z.Ö.; Materials – H.E., Y.Z.H., S.A., Z.Ö.; Data collection &/or processing – H.E., Y.Z.H., S.A., Z.Ö.; Analy-sis and/or interpretation – H.E., Y.Z.H., S.A., Z.Ö.; Literature search – H.E., Y.Z.H., S.A., Z.Ö.; Writing – H.E., Y.Z.H., S.A., Z.Ö.; Critical review – H.E., Y.Z.H., S.A., Z.Ö.


1. Monroe AT, Pikaart D, Peddada AV. Clinical outcomes of image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) with gold fiducial vaginal cuff markers for high-risk endometrial cancer. Acta Oncol 2013;52(5):1010–6.

2. Small W Jr, Beriwal S, Demanes DJ, Dusenbery KE, Eifel P, Erickson B, et al. American Brachytherapy Society consensus guidelines for adjuvant vaginal cuff brachytherapy after hysterectomy. Brachytherapy 2012;11(1):58–67.

3. Fokdal L, Tanderup K, Nielsen SK, Christensen HK, Røhl L, Pedersen EM, et al. Image and laparoscopic guided interstitial brachytherapy for locally advanced primary or recurrent gynaecological cancer using the adaptive GEC ESTRO target concept. Radiother On-col 2011;100(3):473–9.

4. Richardson S, Palaniswaamy G, Grigsby PW. Dosi-metric effects of air pockets around high-dose rate brachytherapy vaginal cylinders. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2010;78(1):276–9.

5. Hung J, Shen S, De Los Santos JF, Kim RY. Image-based 3D treatment planning for vaginal cylinder brachytherapy: dosimetric effects of bladder fill-ing on organs at risk. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2012;83(3):980–5.

6. Rivard MJ, Butler WM, DeWerd LA, Huq MS, Ib-bott GS, Meigooni AS, et al; American Association of Physicists in Medicine. Supplement to the 2004 update of the AAPM Task Group No. 43 Report. Med Phys 2007;34(6):2187–205.

7. Beaulieu L, Carlsson Tedgren A, Carrier JF, Davis SD, Mourtada F, Rivard MJ, et al. Report of the Task Group 186 on model-based dose calculation methods in brachytherapy beyond the TG-43 formalism: current status and recommendations for clinical implementa-tion. Med Phys 2012;39(10):6208–36.

8. Tunçel N, Olacak N, Eren H. Brachytherapy Methods and Dosimetry Systems. Turkish Clinics Radiat On-col-Special Topics 2017;3(1):25–36.

Fig. 4. Patient transfer and treatment table systems (DI-ACOR Zephry HDR) in the brachytherapy appli-cation room.


Benzer Belgeler

Hayvansal kökenli ticari mallar ve bunlardan elde edilen ürünler ile ilgili ilk düzenleme kabuklu yumurta ihracatına ilişkin olarak 1934

Ekolojik göç/mültecilik konusunda literatürde yer alan bir diğer kavram ise çevre veya çevresel göç/mültecilik olarak ortaya çıkan kavramdır. Çevresel

varlığını koruyacaktır. Bu nedenle düzenli yapının kurulduğu ve işlediği dönemi Anayasa’nın kabulüyle başlatmak uygun görünmektedir. 1923 yılı ise bu

para üstü almalıyım?... 3) Bir silgi, bir oyuncak araba ve bir de kalem aldım. Kasaya 100TL verdim. Kaç TL para üstü almalıyım?.... 2) İki gözlük ve bir şapka için kaç

Orion’a ölümü getiren Scorpius(Akrep) olmuştur. Bir masala göre Orion, av tanrıçası Artemis’e aşıktır ve tanrıçayı sürekli rahatsız etmektedir. Tanrıça

Sonuç olarak atlardan EKG alırken zemine izolasyon için las- tik altlık konduğu takdirde nallar bir artifakt meydana getirmemek- tedir. Ayni şekilde insanlarda bulunan kol saatı,

Herhangibir karakteri etkileyen genler ve çevre faktörleri bölge- den bölgeye, ırktan ırka ve hatta ayni ırk içinde sürüden sürüye değiş- tiğinden, ayni karakter

Baba bir üvey kardeş akrabalığına dayanan sınıf içi korrelasyonu metodu ile hesaplanan kalıtım dereceleri doğum ağırlığı için 0.34, altı ayağırlığı için 0.33 ve

Then, the optical characterization of ZnO film deposited at 250° C is conducted via absorption and photoluminescence measurements in order to investigate its

Antioxidant capacities demonstrated the same trend with total phenolic contents; cookies with OFs had significantly (p B 0.05) higher antioxidant capacities compared to control

Bu çalışmada, paleoendemik olan boya çiçeği (Neotchihatchewia İsatidea) bitkisinin yaprak ve çiçeklerinde; indirgenmiş glutatyon (GSH), yükseltgenmiş glutatyon

Bu çalışmada marka- müşteri ilişkileri kalitesi kavramının öncülleri olan müşteri beklentileri, algılanan değer ve kalite kavramları ile marka-müşteri ilişkileri kalitesi

We reasoned that informed feature regularization that incorporates feature correlations should enforce voxelwise models to have relatively similar weights on correlated cat-

Bu tezde Ahmet Mithat Efendi‘nin Felâtun Bey ile Râkım Efendi, Dürdâne Hanım, Taaffüf, Mesâil-i Muğlâka ve Jön Türk romanlarının incelenmesi sonucunda, söz konusu

KILIÇ, Ömer Faruk, İlköğretim Okul Müdürlerinin Vizyon Geliştirme Rolleri: Mardin İli Örneği, Dicle Üniversitesi / Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü / Eğitim Bilimleri

Özel sektörde ise, personele iş kazalarını önlemeye yönelik eğitim verilmesi, işletmenin devletin ilgili kurumlarınca iş sağlığı ve güvenliği konusunda denetlenmesi,

Herth et al, per- formed a prospective evaluation of airway stenting versus esophageal stenting versus double stenting of the airway and esophagus in 112 patients (83 with

Regarding the risk of blood infection in conjunction with, for example, needle-sticks, cuts or sharing syringes, the risk of infection from a person with stable HIV treatment has

Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) revealed worm-like, elongat- ed, highly mobile thrombi in right atrium which was extending to the left atrium by crossing the patent

In the article of the journal which was published in the second issue in 2019 under the title of “Early and mid-term results of frozen elephant trunk procedure for acute type A


The aim of this study is to retrospectively examine the prognostic factors that influence the survival rates and results of adjuvant treatment of patients with endometrial cancer

Using EBSCO-Host for knowledge search, wildcards and proximity operators, displaying and saving search results, creating search alerts.