İslam turizm destinasyonu için model (Vaka incelemesi Türkiye)

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TURKISH REPUBLIC GAZI UNIVERSITESI

GRADUATE SCHOOL OF EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES

Ph.D. DISSERTATION MODEL FOR ISLAMIC TOURISM DESTINATION (Case Study Turkey)

Fariba Nazari

TOURISM MANAGEMENT EDUCATION

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MODEL FOR ISLAMIC TOURISM DESTINATION (Case Study Turkey)

FARIBA NAZARI

Ph.D. DISSERTATION

TOURISM MANAGEMENT EDUCATION

GAZI UNIVERSITY

GRADUATE SCHOOL OF EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES

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THESIS COPYRIGHT AND COPYING PERMISSION FORM

All rights of this thesis reserved. Provided that from the date of submission of thesis November 2016, it can be copied from the thesis.

AUTHOR

Name: Fariba Surname: Nazari

Department: Tourism Management Education Signature:

The thesis deadline:

THESIS SUBJECT

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DECLARATION OF ETHICAL PRINCIPLES

I adhere to scientific and ethical principles in the process of writing the thesis, I mentioned in the bibliography that According to the scientific principles I take advantage of all the resources and any statment outside of these sections declare my personality and belongs to me

Name and surname: Fariba Nazari Signiture:

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JURY CONFIRMATION PAGE

This thesis prepared by Fariba Nazari has been accepted as Doctorate Thesis by the members of the jury union Depatment of Gazi University.

Supervisior: Prof. Dr. Mehmet Yesiltas

(Department/University) (Tourism Management, Girne American University) ...

Head of commissions: Prof. Dr. Dilaver Tengilimoglu

(Department/University) (Management, Atilim University) ... Member: Assoc.Prof. Dr. Irfan Yazıcıoglu

(Department/University) (Gastronomy, Gazi University) ... Member: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ali Yayli

(Department/University) (Recreation, Gazi University) ... Member: Assoc. Dr. Oktay Emir.

(Department/University) (Management, Anadolu University) ...

Date of thesis defence: …../…../……….

I hereby confirm that this dissertation……… meets all requirements that are expected by the Department of Tourism Management Education as a PhD dissertation.

Prof. Dr. Ulku Eser UNALDI

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DEDICATION

I dedicate this dissertation to my husband, Saber Hasanpour, without whom this process could not have taken place. Through his consideration for my goals, I was able to maintain my studies and research. A special thanks to my beautiful daughter who is my love and life,

all of whom added balance to my life. To Ramila, who shared this process with me, My parents, have always believed in me and taught me there is nothing I can’t do I dedicated it

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I wish to express my sincere appreciation to many people who provided support, direction, and assistance toward the completion of this dissertation. Without their words of encouragement and contributions, this dissertation research would not have been finished. First and foremost, I would like to thank Prof. Dr. Mehmet Yesiltas for being my

Supervisior and for all his constant support. Without his very constructive research guidance, comments, encouragement and recommendations, this dissertation would not have been accomplished this way.

My special “thank you” should be extended to committee co-chairmen Prof. Dr. Dilaver Tengilimoglu, Assoc.Prof. Dr. Irfan Yazıcıoglu, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ali Yayli, Assoc. Dr. Oktay Emir. Their support, guidance and instruction were valuable and helped me to complete my graduate studies in Turkey. Their contribution to my academic and professional development is highly valued and gratefully acknowledged. Particularly, I would like to thank Dr. Jafar Jafari for making his unlimited tourism and research knowledge available to me. He was a great inspiration to me I acquired knowledge about tourism throughout studying his books and puplications.

I am also grateful to my dear friend Ahmet Usakli for his continued support and encouragement during my graduate studies. His contributions and support to complete my gradute studies is highly appreciated.

My sincere expression of gratitude is also extended to my dissertation committee members for their help, suggestions, and comments that have improved the finished work.

Lastly, I wish to thank all of the friends, family, and staff at the Department of Tourism and Business at Gazi University for their help and support. I want to express “many thanks” to my family for their unconditional support and for believing in me. Particularly, my beloved husband, Saber hasanpour and my daughter, Ramila. They deserve my special thanks and gratitude for their love, support, and patience. I love you. Finally, I want to

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share this happy moment with my mother and my father. Their endless support and help are highly appreciated.

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MODEL FOR ISLAMIC TOURISM DESTINATION (Case Study

Turkey)

Ph.D Dissertation

Fariba Nazari GAZI UNIVERSITY

GRADUATE SCHOOL OF EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES NOVEMBER, 2016

ABSTRACT

Tourism destination (TD) is an important and key concept in the history of tourism research. According to the findings of these researches, all the specific and problematic characters of tourism can be seen in tourism destination. This research demonstrate the impact of natural, cultural and governmental functions on Islamic tourism and to provide better holiday experience based on total quality management corresponding with Islam regulations. Therefore, the above-mentioned functions are the main factors of making Islamic tourism grows faster in future. Hence when tourism gets a support, it means that this field is an essential part in sustaining the country's development. The strategy can be made by providing facilities for tourists like security and safety. Those facilities might encourage Islamic tourists to travel. This research aimed to conclude by literature review a concept that although Muslim countries are potential tourism market, there is not an integrated and international system and model that can attract and please them. Also this research design a unified sustainable model for Islamic tourism destination that concerns the Islamic hospitality and Islamic legalization all of its stages. Islamic hospitality focuses about the Halal products and services. Islamic tourism destination model in this research is not only exclusive to halal hospitality but this model would also be done based on Islamic principles with Halal environment. After the research, we are going forward to determine some of the factors such as popularity level. The aim is to determine the extent in which Islam dominates policies that influence the development of tourism. To measure the popularity of Muslim countries as tourist destinations, a common model of tourist arrivals in Muslim countries is presented in advance, followed by the secure “needs” of modern tourism. The manner in which these needs are adapted within the different Islamic contexts is worthy of attention. In order to get these results both quantitative and qualitative methods were done. Questions of both methods were designed with combining of VICE model and Islamic five pillars. There is 15 based questions in thesis were tested with both quantitative and qualitative methods. Quantitative method was done for foreign Muslim tourists and qualitative method for two groups of community people, policy makers and planners. Questions for both groups were integrated with each other. Questionary from foreign

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Muslim tourists was done in Ataturk airport in Istanbul, at museums and five star hotels. Interview was done among community people in Ankara and among the officials in Tourism Ministry of Turkey. In the 15 questions of thesis there are 5 factors of life style and foriegn Muslim tourists' perception about VICE MODEL factors (Visitor, Industry, Community and Environment). Finding of these studies can pave the way for tourism planners and policy makers in order to attract and please Islamic and maybe non-Islamic tourists. Islamic tourism village is a case can be done according to the findings of this thesis; also findings of this thesis can be generated for other Islamic and also non-Islamic tourism destination.

Key words: Islamic tourism, Destination, Model, VICE Page Number:

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TABLE OF CONTENT

CHAPTER I ... 1

INTRODUCTION ... 1 1.1. Research Questions ... 5 1.2.Research Problems ... 6 1.3.Purpose of Study... 6 1.4. Significance of Study ... 7 1.5. Assumptions ... 7 1.6. Limitations ... 7 1.7. Definitions of Terms ... 8

CHAPTER II ... 10

LITERATURE REVIEW ...10

2.1. Islam and Tourism ...10

2.2. Islamic Tourism ...12 2.2.1. Religious Tourism ...18 2.2.2. Cultural Tourism ...22 2.3. Tourism Destination ...26 2.3.1. Destination Types ...34 2.3.1.1. City Zone ...34 2.3.1.2. Costal Zone ...34 2.3.1.3. Mountain Zone ...36 2.3.1.4. Island Zone ...37 2.3.2. Destination Planning ...38 2.3.3. Destination Development ...41 2.3.4. Destination Management ...43

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2.4. Tourism Destination Model...48

CHAPTER III ... 53

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ...53

3.1. Reseach Framework ...53

3.2. Research Setting ...55

3.2.1. Research population and sampling ...55

3.2.2. Survey instrument and data collection ... 56

3.2.3. Validity ... 58

3.2.4. Reliability ... 59

3.2.5. Factor Analysis ...63

CHAPTER 4 ………. 64

FINDINGS………. 64

4.1. Quantitative Data Analysis ...64

4.2. Qualitative Data Analysis ...92

4.2.1. Interview with community ...92

4.2.2. Interview with policy makers and planners and industry representatives ...84

4.2.3. Interview with ministry of culture and Islamic guidance ...99

CHAPTER 5 ... 104

CONCLUSIONS ... 104

5.1. Summary and Study Conclusion ... 104

5.2. Model for Islamic Tourism Destination ... 105

5.3. Recommendation of the Research Finding ... 107

5.4. Limitation and Suggestions for Future Research ... 109

REFERENCES ... 111

APPENDIX ... 117

APPENDIX 1. Sample of questionairy ... 118

APPENDIX 2. Permission letter from Istanbul 5 star hotel (Istanbul Haly Day Hotel) ... 120

APPENDIX 3. Permission letter from Istanbul Anufood Eurasia exhibition ... 122

APPENDIX 4. Permission letter from Istanbul Tuyap exhibition ... 123

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APPENDIX 6. Permission letter from Maritime Transport and Communications Ministry ... 125 APPENDIX 7. Permission letter from Ataturk airport ... 126

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 1.1. Muslim visitors arrivals (2010-2020)………....……...3

Table 2.1. Previous Definitions of Islamic Tourism ... ..17

Tablo 2.2. Islamic side of religious tourism ... ..22

Table 2.3. Types of Islamic cultural tourism ... ..25

Table 3.1 Item-Total Statistics (Reliability Analysis) ... ..59

Table 3.2. Item-Total Statistics… ... ...60

Table 3.3. Item-Total Statistics ... ...61

Table 3.3.1. Item-Total Statistics ... ...62

Table 4.1. Participants’ Demographic Information………..……..….………..…....66

Table 4.2. descriptive statistics for the items in the VICE model………..68

Table 4.3. T-Test Analysis of foreign Muslim tourists’ life styles based on gender…………..………72

Table 4.4. ANOVA Analysis of Muslim foreign tourists’ life style differ based on education ... 73

Table 4.5. ANOVA Analysis of Muslim foreign tourists’ life style differ based on annual income ... …73

Table 4.6. Analysis of Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin ... 74

Table 4.7. Exploratory factor analysis of VICE model ...76

Table 4.8. T-Test analysis of Muslim foreign visitors profiles of the destination difference based on gender ... 78

Table 4.9. ANOVA Analysis of Muslim foreign visitor profiles of the destination differ based on education ... 80

Table 4.10. ANOVA Analysis of Muslim foreign visitor profiles of the destination differ based on annual income ... 81

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Table 4.11. T-Test analysis of Muslim foreign visitor profiles of the destination differences based on Muslim life style ...81

Table 4.12. T-Test analysis of Muslim foreign tourists’ perceptions regarding the industrial

practices differ based on gender ... 82

Table 4.13. ANOVA analysis of Muslim foreign tourists’ perceptions regarding the industrial

practices differ based on education... 83

Table 4.14. ANOVA analysis of Muslim foreign tourists’ perceptions regarding the industrial

practices differ based on annual income ... 84 Table 4.15. Tukey HSD... …84 Table 4.16. T-Test analysis of Muslim foreign tourists’ perceptions regarding the industrial practices differences based on Muslim life styles……….85

Table 4.17. t-Test analysis of Muslim foreign tourists’ perceptions regarding the community

characteristics differ based on gender ... 85

Table 4.18. ANOVA analysis of Muslim foreign tourists’ perceptions regarding the community

characteristics differ based on education ... 86

Table 4.19. ANOVA analysis of Muslim foreign tourists’ perceptions regarding the community

characteristics differ based on annual income ... 87

Table 4.20. Tukey HSD (Community characteristic) ... 88

Table 4.21. T-Test analysis of Muslim foreign tourists’ perceptions regarding the community characteristics differences based on Muslim life styles………88

Table 4.22. T-Test analysis of Muslim foreign tourists’ perceptions regarding the environmental

characteristics differ based on gender ... 89

Table 4.23. ANOVA analysis of Muslim foreign tourists’ perceptions regarding the environmental

characteristics differ based on education ... 90

Table 4.24. ANOVA analysis of Muslim foreign tourists’ perceptions regarding the environmental

characteristics differ based on annual income ... 97

Table 4.25. T-Test analysis of Muslim foreign tourists’ perceptions regarding the environmental characteristics differences based on Muslim life styles ...91

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LISTS OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1 Muslims as a share of world population ... 2

Figure 2.1. Types of Islamic Religion and cultural tourism (INPUT)... 28

Figure 2.2. Three dimensions of Islam ( INPUT) ... 29

Figure 2.3. Muslim Tourists idea ( INPUT) ... 30

Figure 2.4. Community idea (INPUT) ... 31

Figure 2.5. Policy maker idea ( INPUT) ... 32

Figure 2.6. Destination Experience ... 34

Figure 2.7. VICE model of tourism destination ... 45

Figure 2.8. VICE model of tourism destination according to Islamic principles ... 46

Figure 2.9. Classification of tourism models ... 49

Figure 2.10. Six stage process of model development ... 51

Figure 4.1. Factor analysis screen plot ... 78

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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

Tourism destination (TD) is an important and key concept in the history of tourism research. In fact, many researches (Yoon 2002, Man 2005, Seddighi and Theocharous 2002, Russo and Segre 2009, Andergassen and Candela and Figini 2013, Inskeep 1991) pay attention to the planning, management, development and sustainability of tourism destination. According to the findings of these researches, all of the specific and problematic characters of tourism can be seen in tourism destination.

In other words, the tourism destination is the meaningful bound between the complexity of the sector, the completeness and substitution that tourism production covers, and the provision of existing local resources. There are several different definitions for the tourism destination, extending from management learning, where it is particularly understood as a product, to tourism geography where the destination is supposed to be a recommendation of the reign (Rainer and Guido and Paolo, 2012, p. 86).

Islam, with more than one billion adherents, is the dominant religion in forty-six countries, and a major secondary religion in many others. Most of the world’s Muslim is spread throughout North Africa, the Middle East, Central Asia and Southeast Asia, although there is large population living in Europe, East Africa and North America as well. In most countries where Islam dominates the religious landscape, religion is the center of life. It shapes all social, political and economic behavior (Henderson 2003. Cited from, Timothy& Iverson, 2006, p. 188).

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Source markets for international tourism have traditionally been largely concentrated in the advanced economies of Europe, the Americas and Asia and the Pacific. However, with rising levels of disposable income, many emerging economies have shown fast growth over recent years, especially in the markets of Asia, Central and Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Africa and Latin America. Europe is currently still the world’s largest source region, generating just over half of the world’s international arrivals, followed by Asia and the Pacific (24%), the Americas (17%), the Middle East (3%) and Africa (3%). (UNWTO, Tourism highlights, 2015, p. 12).

The world’s Muslim population is expected to increase by about 35% in the next 20 years, rising from 1.6 billion in 2010 to 2.2 billion by 2030, according to new population projections by the Pew Research Center’s Forum on Religion & Public Life. Globally, the Muslim population is forecast to grow at about twice the rate of the non-Muslim population over the next two decades – an average annual growth rate of 1.5% for Muslims, compared with 0.7% for non-Muslims. If current trends continue, Muslims will make up 26.4% of the world’s total projected population of 8.3 billion in 2030, up from 23.4% of the estimated 2010 world population of 6.9 billion. While the global Muslim population is expected to grow at a faster rate than the non-Muslim population, the Muslim population nevertheless is expected to grow at a slower pace in the next two decades than it did in the previous two decades. From 1990 to 2010, the global Muslim population increased at an average annual rate of 2.2%, compared with the projected rate of 1.5% for the period from 2010 to 2030 (PewResearchCenter, 2011, p.13). The following Figure 1.1 presents the Muslim as a share of world population.

Figure 1.1 PewResearchCenter. (2011). The Future of the Global Muslim Population: Projections for 2010-2030. 1615 L St., NW, Suite 700

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The travel sector represented by Muslim travelers was worth $121 billion in 2014 and the total number of Muslim visitor arrivals amounted to 116 million - representing 10.2 percent of the global visitor arrivals. It is projected that the number of Muslim visitors will grow to 180 million by 2020 and Muslim tourism sector will constitute 11,4 percent of the market with an expenditure projected to be $212 billion. Table 4 shows the Muslim visitor arrivals and expenditure for the years 2000 and 2014, and the forecast for 2020 (standing committe for economic and commercial cooperation of the organization of Islam cooperation (COMCE), 2016, P. 39)

Table 1.1.

Musim visitor arrivals (2010-2020)

YEAR 2010 YEAR 2014 YEAR 2020 E Growth forcast 2015-2020 (percentage) Total Muslim visitor arrivals(millions) 98 116 180 54.5

From OIC to OIC (millions) 42 51 79 54.1

From non- OIC to OIC (millions) 11 13 19 42.9

Total Muslim visitor arrivals to OIC (millions)

53 64 98 51.8

% of Muslim visitor to OIC 53.9% 55.3% 54.3%

From OIC to non-OIC (milions) 21 22 40 76.3

From non-OIC to non-OIC (millions) 24 30 42 43.6

Total Muslim visitor arivalls to non- OIC (millions)

45 52 82 57.7

% of Muslim visitortos to non-OIC 46.1% 44.7% 45.7%

Total visitor arrivals to OIC (millions) 169 190 249 31.1

% of muslim arrivals 31.1% 33.8% 39.1%

Source: Crescent rating. (2015). Cited from standing committe for economic and commercial cooperation of the organization of Islam cooperation (COMCE), 2016, P. 39

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Total tourist arrivals are expected to increase in the OIC countries. By the year 2020 Muslim visitor arrivals would be 98 million into the OIC member states which would be a growth rate of 51.8 percent over the forecast period. Although most of the arrivals would be from OIC member states, travel by Muslim from non-OIC member states would have grown by 42.95 percent over the forecast period. This is an opportunity, which the OIC member states could explore. Total Muslim Visitor Arrivals to non-OIC member states growth over the forecast period will be 57.75%. Non-OIC member states are actively seeking to attract the Muslim travelers. Singapore, United Kingdom, Germany and France have traditionally attracted the Muslim tourist. Recently Japan, Korea and Australia for example have sought to attract the Muslim traveler. Muslim visitors from OIC to Non-OIC growth rate will be 76.38 percent (standing committe for economic and commercial cooperation of the organization of Islam cooperation (COMCE), 2016, P. 40)

This thesis will demonstrate the impact of natural, cultural and governmental functions on Islamic tourism and to supply better holiday experience based on total quality management corresponding with Islam regulations, Therefore, the above-mentioned functions are the main factors of making Islamic tourism grows faster in future. Hence when tourism sector gets a support, it means that this sector is an essential part in sustaining the country's development. Henceforth, we can understand that Islamic tourism brings benefit and profit for both government and society, but if the government wants to earn the profit, it must play a role and go through a strategy. The strategy can be made by providing facilities that ensure security and safety for tourists. Those facilities might encourage Islamic tourists to travel. In recent years, some factors like higher standard of living and demographic changing among Muslim countries encourage them to start traveling, especially those in Arab countries due to revolution conflicts. This research aim to conclude by literature review a concept that although Muslim countries are potential tourism market, there is not integrated and international system and model that can attract and please them. Here, the purpose is to survey the extent in which such influence is of significant importance; to do so, first, focusing on how popular Muslim countries are as destinations for tourism is needed. Also this thesis will design a unified sustainable model for Islamic tourism destination concerns the Islamic hospitality and Islamic legitimization in all of its stages. Islamic hospitality focuses on the halal products and services.

As a subsection of religious tourism, the Halal tourism tailors Muslim families following Sharia rules. In such destinations, the hotels do not serve alcohol and have separate swimming

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pools and health spas' facilities for both men and women. Malaysia, Turkey and many other countries are trying to attract Muslim tourists worldwide, offering facilities in line with the religious beliefs of Muslim tourists. The Halal tourism industry also provides flights where no alcohol or pork products are served, prayer timings are announced, and religious programs being broadcasted as part of entertainment offered on board (Wikipedia, 2016).

Islamic tourism destination model that in this research is not only exclusive to halal hospitality but this model would also be done based on Islamic principles with centeralized of Halal environment.

After the thesis, going forward to determine some of the factors underlying such popularity level. The aim is to determine the extent in which Islam dominates policies that influence the development of tourism. To measure the popularity of Muslim countries as tourist destinations, a common model of tourist arrivals in Muslim countries is presented in advance, followed by the secular “needs” of modern tourism. The manner in which these needs are adapted within the different Islamic contexts is worthy of attention. Finally, the idea concerning appropriate tourism for Muslim countries is studied, based on some hypothesis in connection with the future of tourism in Muslim countries. (Din, 1989:543). Finding of these studies can pave the way for tourism planners and policy makers in order to attract and please Islamic and maybe non-Islamic tourists. Islamic tourism village is a case that can be done according to the findings of this thesis; also findings of this thesis can be generated for other Islamic and also non-Islamic tourism destination.

1.1. Research Questions

1. Do Muslim foreign tourists’ life style differ based on gender? 2. Do Muslim foreign tourists’ life style differ based on education? 3. Do Muslim foreign tourists’ life style differ based on annual income?

4. Do Muslim foreign visitor’ profile of the destination differ based on gender? 5. Do Muslim foreign visitor profile of the destination differ based on education? 6. Do Muslim foreign visitor profile of the destination differ based on annual income? 7. Do Muslim foreign tourists’ perceptions regarding the industrial practices differ based on gender?

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8. Do Muslim foreign tourists’ perceptions regarding the industrial practices differ based on education?

9. Do Muslim foreign tourists’ perceptions regarding the industrial practices differ based on annual income?

10. Do Muslim foreign tourists’ perceptions regarding the community characteristics differ based on gender?

11. Do Muslim foreign tourists’ perceptions regarding the community characteristics differ based on education?

12. Do Muslim foreign tourists’ perceptions regarding the community characteristics differ based on annual income?

13. Do Muslim foreign tourists’ perceptions regarding the environmental characteristics differ based on gender?

14. Do Muslim foreign tourists’ perceptions regarding the environmental characteristics differ based on education?

15. Do Muslim foreign tourists’ perceptions regarding the environmental characteristics differ based on annual income?

1.1. Research Problems

In the context of this thesis, the research problems considered here are as follows:

1. There is a lack of empirical study regarding Islamic tourism. Therefore, there is a need for more empirical research on this subject.

2. This thesis designed to investigate the demand for Islamic tourism that is growing. However, world tourism destinations don’t have adequate and appropriate places to accommodate the needs and demands of Islamic tourists. Thus, there is a need for a model to develop the Islamic tourism destination to attract and please Islamic tourists.

1.3. Purpose of Study

The thesis has the following objectives: 1. To discuss the Islamic tourism concept,

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2. To demonstrate value of Islamic tourism,

3. To design a model for an Islamic tourism destination.

1.4. Significance of the Study

The results of this thesis can be useful in a number of ways. First, the results influence the local governments for the future policy making. The research findings will help policy makers to design all the touristic and hospitality services to Islamic tourist. This will increase the possibility of attracting Islamic tourists to the designed Islamic destination. This can be a significant tool for employment and economic development for the Muslim countries and maybe for non Islamic countries as well. This matter perhaps is the most significant for foreign exchange earning and the effect of that on community. As result, the standard of living will be increased in the society. Thirdly Islamic tourists will benefit from the research findings. They will get more satisfaction thanks to the destinations that have been developed according to their needs and demands.Finally, the findings of this thesis will help the accumulation of literature on Islamic tourism and tourism destination.

1.5. Assumptions

There are two main assumptions in this thesis:

1. It is assumed that Islamic law (Sharih) will be used in the proceces of this thesis,

2. It is assumed that all respondents will answer all survey questions honestly and to the best of their knowledge and abilities.

1.6. Limitations

There are mainly two limitations to the thesis:

1. In the result of literature review of this thesis, shortage of scientific study and references on Islamic tourism destination has been seen.

2. Because of financial and time limits, the thesis will be conducted only in Turkey. In other words population will be limited to this country. Community of other Islamic countries and policy makers may have different opinions about what the Islamic tourism destination is.

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1.7. Definitions of Terms

The following definitions are provided to ensure uniformity and understanding of these terms throughout the thesis.

Islam

The monotheistic Muslim faith as revealed by Mohammed in the Kran, the sacred book of Mohammedans (Medlik, 2003, p. 98).

Islamic Tourism

According to WTO, Islamic tourism is the “activities of Muslims traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for participation of those activities that originate from Islamic motivations which are not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated in the place visited.”(Laderlah, et al, 2011, p.186).

Model

Models, Systems of hypotheses relating to one or more dependent variables (such as numbers of visitors or their expenditure) to one or more independent variables (such as standard of living or distance from generating sources), to explain past variations and predict future variations in consumer behavior (Medlik, 2003, p. 115).

Tourism

Tourism is a social, cultural and economic phenomenon which entails the movement of people to countries or places outside their usual environment for personal or business/professional purposes (UNWTO, Understanding tourism: Basic glossary, 2012).

Tourism Destination

Countries, regions, towns and other areas which attract tourists, are the main locations of tourist activity, and tend to account for most of tourists’ time and spending. They are the main

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focuses of tourist attractions, accommodation and other tourist facilities and services, where the main impacts of tourism – economic, social, physical– occur (Medlik, 2003, p.165).

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CHAPTER II

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1. Islam and Tourism

“Islam is a way of life, and it is not merely as religions. Islam is viewed from three dimensions which are Islam, Iman and Ihsan. Islam consists of five pillars, which is must for every Moslem to fulfill it. Firstly, the witness (syahadah) of there is no god except Allah, and Muhammad is the last Messenger of Allah. Secondly, praying five times a day, thirdly gives the Zakat, fourthly fasting on Ramadan, and lastly performs hajj if able. Then, Iman is the second stage of Islam which means of affirming the existence of Allah, His angels, His books, His messengers, and the Last Day (Qiyamat), and lastly, affirming the good and bad (qada’ and qadar). Meanwhile, “Ihsan is to worship God as though you see Him, and if you cannot see Him, then indeed He sees you.”(Reported by Muslim, cited from fortyhadith.com, cited from Laderlah et al, 2011, p.186).

Thus, within the global Muslim community there is diversity from the blending of religion, culture, politics and historical influences. The Muslim world embodies both a common set of religious beliefs as well as a complexity that rewards investigation and rejects any simple label or categorization. This is reflected by a variety of tourisms: located between admission and rejection of tourism involving lifestyle and behaviour that is forbidden to Muslims, and between pious or pleasurable travel by adherents (Jafari and Scott, 2014, p. 2).

Human as caliphs in this world should know and explore all the creations [Q, 67:15] that have been created by God. Thus, one of the traditions to look into the world is by traveling. So, Muslems who want to travel must be done accordance to syariah advice. In Islam, traveling has many benefits towards human. First, it will help a person to reduce tensions and rest his/her mind, body and souls from any troubles. At the same time, he/she will gain more knowledge and information by seeking and thinking [Q, 22:46] The beauty of God’s

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creations. Tourist also can think about the beginning of the creations [Q, 29:20] that have been created and these are valuable information for human. In the Qur’an, Allah also has mentioned that all living things in this world are made from water [Q, 21:30]. In addition, Allah has encouraged human to visit the historical places in order to learn the mistakes of the past generations. [Q, 32:26, 3:137, 6:11, 12:109, 47:10]. In Islam, the activity of travelling and exploring the world may be considered as ‘ibadah and da’wah. ‘Ibadah is a noun (word) that includes everything that Allah (S.W.T.) loves and accepts either from speaking or from doing. Moreover, da’wah means to attract or preach a person into a right way. Tourism will become an ‘ibadah if the purpose of traveling is for God’s blessing and avoid the wrongdoings. In order to preach in the right way, the preachers or da’i must have knowledge and have a good manner in order to deliver the message of Islam to the society (Laderlah et al, 2011, p.186).

Most aspects of Muslim life’s like touristic activity influences by Islamic law like, Islamic economic, Islamic social policies and Islamic legal (Huntington, 1996; Timothy & Iverson, 2006). Based on the Islamic worldview of God, man, and nature, traveling is fundamental and encouraged (Quran Chapter 29: Verse 20 [abbreviated hereafter in the format Q29:20]; Q22:46). Traveling aims to achieve physical, social, and spiritual goals (Din, 1989; Timothy & Iverson, 2006). The spiritual goal reinforces one’s submission to God through the beauty and bounty of God’s creation; grasping the smallness of man reinforces the greatness of God and learning from past mistakes (Q29:20; Q30:42; Q16:36) (Hashim, morphy et al, 2007, p.4).

Although in modern times this notion is not strictly followed, we are dealing here with the main concepts of Islam as mentioned in the Koran and the Hadith (the sayings of the Prophet). Islam is a comprehensive religion whose rules and codes organize the details of the most minor aspects of everyday life; among them are those organizing the concept of travel and the relations between hosts and guests, between tourists and those at the receiving end. The rules include allowing travelers to pursue the requirements of their religion without affecting the course of their journey; for example, combining and shortening praying times, exemption from fasting and so forth. Islam also emphasizes the duty of hospitality by the hosts towards travelers who happen to pass by without making charges or queries. Guests are also asked to respect the privacy and culture of the hosts (Aziz, 1995, p. 92).

The study of Islam in particular is important, as in the Islamic faith, the boundaries of the spiritual and secular are transcended. The holy book Qur’an provides guidance in all aspects

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of human activity, so religion influences the direction of tourism choices that both individuals and governments are making about alternative forms of its development and practice. This unifying tendency is also found in the concept of ummah (a world community) and sharing of a number of widely held tenets (Hodge, 2002). However, the study of Islam (or of any world faith) must also be seen in local contexts—as a type of “glocalization” (Robertson, 1994 )—as a religion's ideology and practice are elaborated, understood, and subsequently reproduced in particular places (Eickelman, 1982) and communities (Eickelman & Piscatori, 1990). The development of Islam in any country or region has been affected by numerous historical, ethnic, economic, and political factors. This multi-patterned fabric of similarity and diversity is reflected in a number of branches of Islam of which the most numerous are Sunni and Shia. Uniting all Muslims, however, are five pillars or basic spiritual duties: declaring one's complete faith that Allah (God) is the only Supreme Being and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah; performing five prayers a day; donating 2.5% of annual income through zakat (a charity tax to help the needy); fasting (which includes no eating, drinking, nor intimacy) during the daytime in Ramadan; and making a pilgrimage to Makkah (Muhammad's birthplace) at least once in a person’s life if one is able. Beyond these duties, there is diversity among individuals who self-identify as ). Thus, within the global Muslim community there is diversity from the blending of religion, culture, politics and historical influences. The Muslim world embodies both a common set of religious beliefs as well as a complexity that rewards investigation and rejects any simple label or categorization (Jafari and Scott, 2014, p.3-4).

2.2. Islamic Tourism

According to Teomen Duman (2011), Islamic tourism can be defined as the activities of Muslims travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for participation in those activities that originate from Islamic motivations which are not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited.

The Prophet Muhammad says that "Actions are (judged) by motives (niyyah), so each man will have what he intended. Thus, he whose migration (hijrah) was to Allah and His Messenger, his migration is to Allah and His Messenger; but he whose migration was for some worldly thing he might gain, or for a wife he might marry, his migration is to that for which he migrated." (Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim, cited from ahadith.co.uk).

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In the earliest use of the world Islamic tourism, was used to describe a type of tourist that travel as a pilgrims and go to the places like Mecca. If we apply above definition to the WTO definition, then, Islamic tourism can be defined as “the activities of Muslims traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for participation of those activities that originate from Islamic motivations which are not related to the excise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited.”(Laderlah, et al, 2011:186). The category of travel enjoined in Islam may be described as “purposeful” tourism which differs from the common practice of mass tourism which is motivated mainly by pleasure and hedonistic pursuits. Indeed the official definition of the “tourist” excludes those engaged in employment, whereas in Islam work (trading) is encouraged as for instance during the hjj season (Q 2: 198), (Din, 1989, p.552). Islam is a religion of knowledge. This means that knowledge is a primary motive of Muslim thinking and Muslim activities. This resulting knowledge is to lead ultimately to knowledge of God. According to the Qur’an, God reveals Himself in creation as well as in human history so that man can know Him.

God displays His signs in the following:

1. In the natural world of minerals, plants, and animals: to demonstrate unity in biodiversity. A Quranic verse on biodiversity and its spiritual message reads:

“Do you not see that God sent down water from the sky with which we brought forth fruits of diverse hues? In the mountains there are white and red, of diverse hues, and pitchy black; and human beings too, and beasts and cattle – diverse are their hues. From among His servants, it is only those who know fear God. Verily God is Most Mighty, Most Forgiving.” (Al-Qur’an, chapter 35, verses 27-28)

In natural and cultural history:

a)To understand divine power and divine wisdom in the creation of the still visible natural wonders and divine laws operating in the world of nature. A Quranic verse reads: Say:

“Travel through the earth and see how God did originate creation; so will God produce a later creation: for God has power over all things.” (Al-Qur’an, chapter 29, verse 20)

b) To understand divine power and the divine laws operating in the moral domain of human history that have resulted in the end and destruction of the mightiest empires and the most prosperous of towns and cities (the Qur’anic al-qaryah).

In 13 different verses scattered in various chapters the Qur’an calls on man to travel through the earth to see the historical sites with the view of learning about the historical fates of

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human communities who have led ways of life and life styles that went against the divine laws governing the moral universe (see 3:137; 6:11; 12:109; 16:36; 22:46; 27:69; 29:20; 30:9; 30:42; 35:44; 40:21; 40:82; 47:10)

The role of Islamic tourism in the human learning of these signs:

1. On the basis of the above Quranic perspectives, eco-tourism should be an important part of Islamic tourism. The role of Islamic eco-tourism is to help explore the manifestations of al-tawhid in biodiversity; the richness and the grandeur of natural phenomena,

2. Inter-cultural understanding and cultural literacy should be among the objectives of Islamic tourism. Learning about other living cultures and the ethnic-cultural diversity in our world is in conformity with the teachings of the Qur’an and therefore deserves to be part of Islamic tourism.

3. Specialized group tours and expeditions for the study of natural history (e.g. paleontology) and the study of human history (e.g. archaeology) such as for scientists, students and teachers. This type of group tours and expeditions should be encouraged as part of Islamic tourism (Bakar, 2011).

Religious buildings, rituals, festivals and religious events are important tourist attractions for those are the followers of the particular systems of belief represented (Henderson, 2003, p. 447).

Islamic tourism is a new tourism destination in the world today. There are 54 Muslim countries in the world. Most of the countries situated in an important nerve point of the world. Due to the geographical and economic importance of Muslim countries, this tourism increases day by day. Islamic tourism will be famous in those countries as well as all over the world. Islamic tourism is not one type of tourism, in the case of secular tourism. This tourism would help to extend the prospects for intellectual investigation. Some scholars have been describing this tourism as religious tourism also. It is of two types: tourism through which a religious duty is performed, and tourism by which knowledge is recorded and quoted for wider dissemination. Should the aim of this be to obtain the Blessings of God, it would achieve another objective - and that is to attract tourists. Islam has encouraged tourism for the faithful in the practice of life’s affairs and to obtain experience and maturity. For instance, Muslims from Andalusia to China, India, Persia and Turkey to Indonesia have traversed the earth by the orders of God, both in search of work and to acquire knowledge (Jubayr, 2002).

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Islamic tourism has a great impact on the tourists and travelers as well as on Muslim societies (Bhuiyan et al, 2011, p.1334).

Henderson (2010), points out the definitional ambiguities with regards to Islamic tourism concept. She distinguishes between Islamic tourism, non-Islamic tourism and un-Islamic (anti-Islamic) tourism. According to Henderson, Islamic tourism covers all product development and marketing efforts designed for and directed at Muslims whereas non-Islamic tourism represents product development and marketing efforts designed for and directed at non-Muslims. Some of the definitions of the concept of Islamic tourism found in literature are presented in Table 1. The following section will elaborate on the definition of Islamic tourism and provide a motivational approach to the concept (Duman, 2011, p.4).

Demand for leisure travel by Muslims is mounting in parallel with the expanding Muslim population worldwide. The phrase Islamic tourism is frequently used to describe travel by Muslims for whom compliance with religious observances when away from home is an important consideration. Among other labels are halal tourism and Muslim-friendly tourism. Muslim travellers have several unique features. Their distinctiveness creates challenges for suppliers of services as well as destination marketers in ensuring proper provision while balancing the needs of Muslim and non-Muslim customers. At the same time, there is diversity within the overall market, based on factors such as age and nationality alongside religiosity (Henderson, 2016. Cited from Islamic tourism: The next big thing?).

Based on procedng discussion, it apears that a main difference between Islamic tourism and Halal tourism is from the objective perspective. Islamic tourism is traveling activities that are motivated by purpose or some specific goals. While Halal tourism is more towards supporting the economic opportunities of supply chain in tourism to cater for Muslim needs by providing attributes that confirm to Shaia’and in the same time support the Islamic tourism. It ia note that Islam teaches conduct of behavior between men and Allah and men and men through Sharia’which is Islamic low and principles recorded in Quran and Sunnah ( prophet Mohammad S.A.W. guided lifestyle); befor it is the maincomprehensive dogma, legal and ethical doctrines. In Islam, Sharia’is absolute and must be followed thus individual rights and legal consideration is considered irrelevant (Laldin, 2008.p.3). Therefore, Sharia became the way of life of Muslim. Any activities thay they do or places they go will be guided by Sharia’. Hence, with the Sharia’compliance attributes embedded in Halal tourism, the objective of Halal tourism is to support Islamic tourism or Muslim travelers at any destination so that travelling Muslim will feel comfortable at the destination and the most important is to be able

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to perform their Sharia’obligation. The basic normal attributes in Halal tourism that are based on Sharia’ (but not exhausive) can be classified as the following Table 1;(Eid, 2014; Eid & El-gohary, 2015. Cited from, Rahman et al, 2016, p. 142).

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Table 2.1.

Previous Definitions of Islamic Tourism Authors Definitions

Henderson (2010)

All product development and marketing efforts designed for and directed at Muslims. Motivations are not always or entirely religious. Participants could be pursuing similar leisure experiences to non-Muslims, albeit within parameters set by Islam, and destinations are not necessarily locations where Shariah or full Islamic law is enacted. Ala-Hamarrneh

(2011)

The economic concept for Islamic tourism is an extension and expansion oriented concept which focuses on the importance of intra-Muslim and intra-Arab tourism in terms of inclusion of new tourist markets and tourist destinations.

The cultural concept for Islamic tourism includes visions and ideas that outline the inclusion of Islamic religious-cultural sites in tourism programs with “pedagogical” and self-confidencebuilding elements.

The religious-conservative concept for Islamic tourism has not yet been theoretically articulated. But various opinions and remarks in the discussions on the future of tourism in the Arab and Islam worlds as well as some practices of hotel’s managements indicate that articulations and implementations are just a matter of time Henderson

(2009)

Tourism mainly by Muslims, although it can extend to unbelievers motivated to travel by Islam, which takes place in the Muslim world.

Shakiry (2006) The concept of Islamic tourism is not limited to religious tourism, but it extends to all forms of tourism except those that go against Islamic values.

Hassan (2007) In its narrow sense, it may mean "Religious Tourism" (Visiting shrines all over the Islamic

World). But in its wide sense, it is the type of tourism that adheres to the values of Islam. Most

of these values are shared with other religious and non-religious beliefs (for example the ethical

code promoted by World Tourism Organization). It calls for respect for local communities and

the local environment, benefiting the locals, decency and learning about other cultures.

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generally accepted as high standards of morality and decency. It also stands for the respect of local beliefs and traditions, as well as care for the environment. It represents a new outlook on life and society. It brings back values to the central stage in an age where consumerism is rife and everything is available for use and abuse in the most selfish way. It also encourages understanding and dialogue between different nations and civilizations and attempts to find out about the background of different societies and heritages.

Dogan (2010) Islamic tourism covers tourism activities by Muslims in seaside destinations for the purposes of relaxation and entertainment in hospitality enterprises that apply Islamic principles.

Source: Duman, T. (2011). Value of Islamic Tourism Offering: Perspectives from the Turkish Experience, World Islamic Tourism Forum, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Lastly, tourism in Islam is balance for dual life, which is in the world now and hereafter. Traveling may strengthen the relationship among human (habl min an-nas) and also relationship towards Allah (habl min Allah). In other words, tourism may influence the happiness in the world and in the hereafter simultaneously (Laderlah et al, 2011, p.186). According to all of thes definition and verse of Quran and five pillars of Islam, Religion and cultural tourism that is spiritualiy motivating can be the most important components of Islamic tourism development in the world. These types of tourism is in a relationship with each other, for example religious tourism may be done in correlation with some of the activities of The cultural tourism and vice versa. By taking accounts all of this, in modeling and planning Islamic tourism destination, these types of tourism and their subparts should be considered. Motivaiton of tourists to the destination will be done using these types of tourism.

2.2.1. Religious tourism

Religious tourism, travel primarily motivated by religious reasons, is one of the oldest types of tourism and ‘‘probably as old as religion’’ itself (Rinschede, 1992, p. 53). Hundreds of years before Jesus Christ, Assyrians worshipped their gods in Aleppo and Hierapolis (in Syria), and Babylonians gathered at Nippur, about 160 km southeast of Baghdad, to pray for peace and implore their gods for long life (Rinschede, 1992). These early religious tourists

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made pilgrimages to holy burial sites, mountains, and temples to show respect to their gods, give thanks, and beg for assistance (Nolan & Nolan, 1992; Rinschede, 1992). The advent of Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam helped institutionalize religious pilgrimages and places (Rinschede, 1992). Hindus washed away sins and lessened the suffering of reincarnation in the Ganges River (Arora, 1986). Buddhists visited holy sites in Sri Lanka and natural sites such as caves, springs, lakes, and mountains in Tibet and China (Rinschede, 1992). Muslims went to Mecca for their Hajj to complete their duties described in the Five Pillars of Islam (Timothy & Iverson, 2006), according to Rinschede (1992), Christians visited Holy Lands associated with the life and Works of Jesus. Studies of religion and tourism are usually centered on the purpose and impact of tourism activities, destination images, and managing sacred sites (Hattab & Katz, 2001; Jackowski & Smith, 1992; Nolan & Nolan, 1992; Schneider & Sonmez, 1999; Sharpley & Sundaram, 2005; Vukonic, 1992). Rinschede (1992) suggested two temporal forms of religious tourism, short- and long-term. The former includes excursions to nearby pilgrimage centers and religious conferences, usually taking place within a day. Long-term religious tourism can last months—for example, visiting national and international pilgrimage sites or events, such as Muslims’ spending 45 days in Mecca for their Hajj (Hashim et al, 2007, p.1084).

Among uncountable holy places located around the world, Mecca in Saudi Arabia, old city Jerusalem of Israel, and chain sites of Lumbini – Bodhgaya – Sarnath – Kushinagar in Nepal and India are the most famous spiritual addresses. Regarding Viet-Nam, its spiritual tourism is related to Buddhism, folk religions, and ancestral worship. Perhaps transcendence is a great spiritual experience that allows spiritual tourists to expand their capabilities, and convert their relative physical and spiritual lives into a safer and happier direction (A theory of spiritual tourism development, 2012).

Spiritual tourism, broadly defined to include tourism that is motivated fully or partly by such values (especially religious tourism, both domestic and international), is a vehicle for change for the better and can lead to peace if properly guided by codes of ethics and conduct (for tourists as well as managers) that are sourced from religions and social-cultural values derived from religions. In fact, the philosophies of the four major religions (in terms of followers) – Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam and Christianity – are not conflicting, if we examine their spiritual aspects and bases. All these religions aspire to be world religions, but are hindered by barriers like ritualism, ethnicity and nationalism, so the question of scale is also important. This is especially so since contemporary social processes of globalization and localization,

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which compete with religions as forces for harmony, as well as their paradoxical products – disharmony, discord and conflict – are necessary in any assessment of religious tourism, its impacts and potential (UNWTO, 2011, p. xiv).

The place of religion in tourism research Religion as a concept is linked to a variety of issues in the tourism research literature, but is most commonly mentioned in relation to pilgrimage and discussions about the links between tourism and pilgrimage (Cohen, 1992a, 1992b, 1998;Din, 1989; Fleischer, 2000;Hitrec, 1990; Joseph & Kavoori, 2001;Rinschede, 1992;Smith, 1992;Turner, 1973). Another area of research has linked religion to the relationship between the tourists (the guests) and the local community (the hosts) or the site (Poriaet al 2003). Din (1989) suggests that a difference between the religion of the host and the guest may influence the service supplied to the guest in certain Muslim countries. Din also argues in this context that, due to certain religious beliefs, tourism is discouraged in some Muslim countries because of its impact on the local community. Joseph and Kavoori (2001) suggest that tourism being seen as a threat by a local community is linked to its perceived influence on local traditions, including religious habits. Another branch of research relates to people’s religion as a factor that explains their behaviour as tourists, whether it acts as a motivating force, a constraint, or in relation to aspects of the tourists’ visitation patterns themselves. Although, from what has already been stated, religion is linked to tourist behaviour, two issues are worth mentioning at this stage, as they are important for this thesis in particular. First, it is rare for studies to focus on tourists’ strength of religious belief. Second, it is common for studies to be concerned with specific aspects of a visit alone, without investigating behaviour before, during and after the visit. Also, in this context, it is rare for comparisons to be made between groups with different religious affiliations (Poria et al, 2003, p. 341-343).

Rinschede (1992) argues that religious tourism is differentiated from other types of tourism by a dynamic and static element. Its participants are motivated, sometimes in part but often exclusively, for religious reasons. Motivating factors might include visiting local, regional, national, and international religious centers, ceremonies and conferences. Religious pilgrims can be separated from tourists through the identification of the places they choose to visit. Religious tourism can be seen as a subordinate of cultural tourism (Rinschede, 1992). Religious tour programs often include a free day to allow the pilgrims to explore the surrounding area. Although it is sometimes hard to distinguish religious pilgrims from respectful but secular visitors at religious attractions, there is no evidence to suggest that

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tourism and pilgrimage are incompatible (Nolan & Nolan, 1992). Pilgrims have a tendency to complain more about the commercialization of holy sites and about the lack of authenticity. Despite that, nearly half of the pilgrims studied were found to be interested in non-religious activities (Collins-Kreiner & Kliot, 2000). It is also important for religious tourists to travel with a group of believers that are in the same age group and share similar beliefs. Nolan and Nolan (1992) divided religious tourism into three categories based on the destination's attractions: a) pilgrimage shrines, defined as sites that serve religious motivations but are not beyond the immediate locality of the tourist; b) religious tourism, which refers to sites and structures of some religious significance as well as some historic and/or artistic importance; and c) religious festivals. Pilgrimage, the essential difference that sets the religious tourist apart from other tourists, is defined as a journey resulting from religious causes, externally to a holy site, and internally for spiritual purposes and internal understanding (Barber, 1991). Pilgrims and pilgrimages are important components of travel in most countries and the number of scholars that have investigated the relationship between religion and tourism are many (Cohen, 1992; Collins-Kreiner & Kliot, 2000; Eade, 1992; Hudman & Jackson, 1992; Nolan & S. Nolan, 1992; Rinschede, 1992; Smith, 1992; Vukonic, 1996). There are studies that look at the interaction between pilgrims and tourists (Eade, 1992); the typology of tourist uses of pilgrimage sites (Rinschede, 1992); and the behavioral characteristics of Christian pilgrims who visit holy land (Collins-Kreiner & Kliot, 2000). According to smith (1992), tourism and pilgrimage are considered sharing basic common features, and as opposite end points on a continuum of travel (Wendy, 2010, p.48-50).

Since the definition of a "tourist" makes no mention of motivation, these pilgrims therefore are just as much "tourists" as the third world aid worker who also engages in tourist type activities. A religious tourist therefore is someone who engages in tourism but does so at religious sites. Like the tourists, who light devotional candles and say prayers, these tourists can also be pilgrims of a sort, since many of them engage in "religious activity" at the religious sites they travel to .(Stark, 2006, p.9).

By studying religious tourism and five pillars of Islam, that would be the base in designing Islamic tourism destination model and some of the related verses of Quran, Islamic side of religious tourism can be shown as follows:

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Tablo 2.2.

Islamic Side of Religion Tourism

Islamic side of religion tourism Tourism product, activities

Eco-tourism Understanding divine power and divine laws

Animal/marine park Botanical garden Natural phenomena

Went Mecca for Hajj Going Mecca for doing 5 pillars of Islam

To complete their duties described in five pillars of Islam Short and long terms of religious tourism

Mass tourism

Inter-religious understanding and religious literacy

Visiting national and international pilgrimage site sor events Muslims spending 45 days in Mecca for their Hajj

Participant and motivated

Religious and Spiritual thematic tourism

Natural history

Visiting local regional

National and international religious center Ceremonies

Conferences Monuments Local religious Religious festival Holy baria sites Mountains Respect their Gods Give thanks Beg for assistance Pilgirimage shrine

Sites and structures of some religious significance Historical

Artistic Religious festival

Source: Developed by the author

2.2.2. Cultural tourism

According to a UNESCO report (2003), cultural tourism “has a positive economic and social impact, it establishes and reinforces identity, it helps build image, it helps preserve the

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cultural and historical heritage, with culture as an instrument it facilitates harmony and understanding among people, it supports culture and helps renew tourism” (p.5). If the description provided by UNESCO is accepted, cultural tourism could indeed be considered a promising solution to the mass tourism ‘problem (Elizabeth, 2004, p.2).

Cultural tourism In a narrow sense, special interest holidays (vacations) essentially motivated by cultural interests, such as trips and visits to historical sites and monuments, museums and galleries, artistic performances and festivals, as well as lifestyles of communities. In a broad sense, including also activities with a cultural content as parts of trips and visits with a combination of pursuits (Medlik, 2003, p.48).

Cultural tourism includes tourism to traditional cultural attractions such as museums and galleries, but it also incorporates new forms of tourism associated with cultural activities. They include, but are not limited to, cultural attractions related to the urban ethnic diversity that accompanied immigration to countries such as Australia. The field of cultural landscapes tourism is under-developed in Australia at the level of theory, research and policy development. Yet international research suggests that cultural landscapes tourism has significant potential in attracting new tourists. This research project is a scoping study designed to set out the parameters involved in cultural landscapes tourism research in Australia. It aims to identify how cultural heritage and contemporary cultural diversity impact on visitor experience and on local communities (Culture and Heritage tourism, 2006, p.16). A review of existing definitions of cultural tourism by Bonink (1992) identified two basic approaches. The first, the ’sites and monuments’ approach, concentrates on describing the type of attractions visited by cultural tourists, and is clearly related to a product-based definition of culture. This approach is very useful for quantitative research on cultural tourism, since it is relatively easy to identify, count and interview visitors to cultural attractions. On the other hand, it tends to yield a relatively narrow view of the activities and motivations of cultural tourists, because it restricts the analysis to specific sites. A typical list of the types of sites or attractions which are considered to attract cultural tourists is provided by ECTARC (1989) (ATLAS, 2005, p. 23).

a) Archaeological sites and museums

b) Architecture (ruins, famous buildings, whole towns) c) Art, sculpture, crafts, galleries, festivals, events d) Music and dance (classical, folk, contemporary)

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e) Drama (theatre, films, dramatists)

f) Language and literature study, tours, events g) Religious festivals, pilgrimages

i) complete (folk or primitive) cultures and sub-cultures.

These features are clearly orientated towards a concept of cultural tourism as ’high culture’, and towards the consumption of cultural products, rather than involvement in cultural processes. As with tourism in general, conceptual definitions of cultural tourism attempt to describe the motive and meanings attached to cultural tourism activity (ATLAS, 2005: 23). This thesis intends to introduce and highlight the most important types or in other words The elements of Islamic side of cultural tourism from a thematic perspective grouped by the principles of the preferred activity and by considering 5 pillars of Islam, principles of Quran. According to our standardization we classify Islamic side of cultural tourism in the following way:

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Table 2.3.

Types of Islamic Cultural Tourism

Types of Islamic cultural tourism Tourism production

Cultural tourism To understand divine power and divine laws Study life style of other people,

Study culture of people from other nation, Social customs,

Religious Tradition,

International idea of their cultural heritage, Study entertainment and educational experience,

Study Gastronomy of other nation(Halal food and services) Spiritual,

Architecture Linguistics

Mass tourism Intercultural understanding and cultural literacy Facilities harmony and understanding among people, Linguistics Literature Palentology Heritage tourism Natural history Art gallery Musium Library

Urban ethnic diversity Sculpture

World heritage sites

National and historical memories Literature

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Classical music concert,

Theatre (connected to the historical and religious event)

Dance (connected to the historical and religious event e.g. Mevlana dance)

Opera or musical theatre (connected to the historical and religious event)

Cinema.

Crafts (connected to the historical and religious event) Festivals (connected to the historical and religious event) Pilgrimage

Archaelogy Study human history

Immigration to other countries, Cultural landscape

Cultural heritage and contemporary, Cultural diversity,

Sites of monuments approach, Archaeological sites and museums,

Architecture (Ruins-famous building- whole town).

Source: Developed by the author

2.3. Tourism Destination

A tourism destination is a geographical area where the tourist enjoys various types of experiences. It is possible to distinguish several levels of tourism destination: a country, a region, a city, a resort. This research take the assumption that a destination is a geographical area in which a tourist can live at least one tourism experience and which, from a Destination Management Organization (DMO) point of view, can be managed i.e. can be organized and developed to attract tourists. In this case, a destination is seen as affirm with inputs (its tourism attractions) and outputs (bed-nights, employments.) and the DMO objective is to achieve maximum efficiency through a proper use of its inputs. This technical efficiency in

Şekil

Figure  1.1  PewResearchCenter.  (2011).  The  Future  of  the  Global  Muslim  Population:  Projections for 2010-2030

Figure 1.1

PewResearchCenter. (2011). The Future of the Global Muslim Population: Projections for 2010-2030 p.20
Figure  2.1.  Types  of  Islamic  Religion  and  Cultural  Tourism  (INPUT).  Developed  by  the  author

Figure 2.1.

Types of Islamic Religion and Cultural Tourism (INPUT). Developed by the author p.46
Figure 2.2. Three dimensions of Islam (INPUT). Developed by the author                                                                                                Witnesss (syahadah)

Figure 2.2.

Three dimensions of Islam (INPUT). Developed by the author Witnesss (syahadah) p.47
Figure 2.3. Muslim Tourists idea (INPUT). Developed by the author First part: Demographic Information

Figure 2.3.

Muslim Tourists idea (INPUT). Developed by the author First part: Demographic Information p.48
Figure 2.4. Community idea (INPUT). Developed by the author 2. Community(Ummah)

Figure 2.4.

Community idea (INPUT). Developed by the author 2. Community(Ummah) p.49
Figure 2.5. Policy makers’ idea (INPUT). Developed by the author

Figure 2.5.

Policy makers’ idea (INPUT). Developed by the author p.50
Figure  2.6.  Destination  Experience.  “A  Practical  Guide  to  Tourism  Destination  Management”, WTO., 2007, p.1

Figure 2.6.

Destination Experience. “A Practical Guide to Tourism Destination Management”, WTO., 2007, p.1 p.52
Figure  2.7.  VICE  model  of  tourism  destination.  (Sustainable  tourism  –  Destinations  and  communities

Figure 2.7.

VICE model of tourism destination. (Sustainable tourism – Destinations and communities p.63
Figure 2.8. VICE model of tourism destination according to Islamic principles. Developed by  the author by using the base model of VICE model

Figure 2.8.

VICE model of tourism destination according to Islamic principles. Developed by the author by using the base model of VICE model p.64
Figure 2.9. Classification of tourism models. ‘’Models in tourism planning: towards  integration of theory and practice, Getz, D., 1986,  Tourism Management’’, 7(1), 21–32

Figure 2.9.

Classification of tourism models. ‘’Models in tourism planning: towards integration of theory and practice, Getz, D., 1986, Tourism Management’’, 7(1), 21–32 p.67
Figure  2.10.  Six  stage  process  of  model  development.  “Resort  Destinations:  Evolution,  Management and Development”, Prideaux

Figure 2.10.

Six stage process of model development. “Resort Destinations: Evolution, Management and Development”, Prideaux p.69
Table  analyzed  whether  a  difference  between  the  variables  at  4.3  exists  or  not

Table analyzed

whether a difference between the variables at 4.3 exists or not p.90
Figure 4.1. Graphic of factor analysis scree plot

Figure 4.1.

Graphic of factor analysis scree plot p.96
Table analyzed whether a difference between the variables at table 4.11 exists or not

Table analyzed

whether a difference between the variables at table 4.11 exists or not p.99
Table 4.15.  Tukey HSD

Table 4.15.

Tukey HSD p.102
Table analyzed whether a difference between the variables at table 4.16 exists or not

Table analyzed

whether a difference between the variables at table 4.16 exists or not p.103
Table  analyzed  whether  a  difference  between  the  variables  at  4.17  exists  or  not

Table analyzed

whether a difference between the variables at 4.17 exists or not p.104
Table analyzed whether a difference between the variables at table 4.21 exists or not

Table analyzed

whether a difference between the variables at table 4.21 exists or not p.106
Table  analyzed  whether  a  difference  between  the  variables  at  4.22  exists  or  not

Table analyzed

whether a difference between the variables at 4.22 exists or not p.107
Table analyzed whether a difference between the variables at table 4.25 exists or not

Table analyzed

whether a difference between the variables at table 4.25 exists or not p.109
Figure 5.1. Model for Islamic tourism destination

Figure 5.1.

Model for Islamic tourism destination p.123

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  18. http://www.dinarstandard.com/travel-study
  19. http://www.tram-research.com/atlas/presentation.htm
  20. . http://www.tram-research.com/atlas/presentation.htm
  21. http://www.islamictourism.com.
  22. http://www.straitstimes.com/opinion/islamic- tourism-the-next-big-thing
  23. https://www.amazon.com/Dictionary-Travel-Tourism-Hospitality-Medlik/dp/0750656506?ie=UTF8&*Version*=1&*entries*=0.
  24. http://www.euro-muslims.eu/future_global.pdf.
  25. http://cf.cdn.unwto.org/sites/all/files/article_sustainable_tourism_governance_in_coastal_areas_final_version_oct_2013.pdf.
  26. https://books.google.com.tr/books?id=KyTSCgAAQBAJ&pg=PA142&lpg=PA142&dq=difference+between+Islamic+tourism+and+halal+tourism&source=bl&ots=oW_an
  27. https://www.elsevier.com/books/resort-destinations/prideaux/978-0-7506-5753-2.
  28. http://www.mod.gov.tr/Lists/RecentPublications/Attachments/100/Muslim%20Friendly%20Tourism%20in%20the%20OIC%20Member%20Countries.pdf
  29. http://www.unep.org/resourceefficiency/Home/Business/SectoralActivities/Tourism/WorkThematicAreas/EcosystemManagement/Mountains/tabid/78801/Default.aspx.
  30. http://www.sustainabletourismonline.com/awms/Upload/Resource/Destinations%20and%20Communities%20FINAL.pdf.
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