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The impact of information and communication technology on diplomacy: Cyber diplomacy between Iraq-Turkey


Academic year: 2021

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Doaa Ali Mohammed ALBUISSA 154229001024



Assoc. Prof. Dr. Nezir AKYEŞİLMEN



First of all, I would like to thank the Government of the Republic of Turkey for its scholarship program, which provides international students with an opportunity to pursue their education outside their country. I would also like to thank all members of the International Relations Department at Selçuk University for knowledge and creativity that I acquired by them. My great thanks and appreciation to my Supervisor Doç.Dr. Nezir Akyşilmen for helping me in the process of writing this thesis. I also thank my professors at the University of Baghdad who did not hesitate for a moment to help me, especially Dr. Hala; Head of International Studies, Dr. Saad Hakki; Professor of International Relations, Dr. AhmedSuhail; Professor of Dijital Diplomacy to help me through difficult stages in writing this thesis. Last but not least, I would like to thank my family, which was my source of support and strength, and perseverance in completing what I started, especially my father, mother and my sisters Ala'a. I would also like to thank my friends Noora OMAR, Osama, Omar, Mustafa, who are my second family and did not hesitate to help me.

Doaa Ali Mohammed Albuissa


T. C.

SELÇUK ÜNİVERSİTESİ Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Müdürlüğü

Ö ğr en ci ni n

Adı Soyadı : Doaa Ali Mohammed ALBUISSA Numarası : 154229001024

Ana Bilim / Bilim Dalı : Uluslararası İlişkiler/Uluslararası İlişkiler Programı Tezli Yüksek Lisans Doktora Tez Danışmanı : Doç. Dr. Nezir AKYEŞİLMEN

Tezin Adı : Irak-Türkiye Arasındaki Siber Diplomasi Bilgi Ve İletişim Teknelojisi Diplomasi Üzerindeki Etkisi:


Diplomasi, dünyadaki tüm ülkeler için en önemli dış politika araçlarından biridir, bu nedenle ülkeler bu araçları dış menfaatlerine hizmet etmek için mümkün olan her yolla geliştirmeye çalışmaktadır. Ülkeler telgraf ve telefon, modern bilgi ve iletişim teknolojisi araçlarına (BİT) erişim, yani internete sosyal iletişim aracı olarak bağlanmış, diplomasi adının bu araçlarla bağlantı kurmaya başladığı bir araç olarak kullanılmaya başlanmıştır. siber diplomasi, dijital diplomasi, e-diplomasi, Facebook diplomasisi, Twitter diplomasisi ve hatta telefon diplomasisi. Ülkeler modern diplomasi araçlarının gelişimi için rekabet ediyorlar. Ülkelerin diplomasi hizmeti için siber araçlara ne kadar bağımlı olduğu farketmeksizin, fakat yine de diplomatların veya geleneksel diplomasinin veya kamu diplomasisinin rolünü ortadan kaldırmayan diplomatik çalışmanın gelişmesine ve hızlanmasına destekleyici bir araç olarak.

Anahtar Kelimeleri: Siber diplomacy, bilişim ve iletişim teknolojisi, Diplomasi, Siber araçları, Dijital boşluğu.


Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Müdürlüğü Ö ğr en ci ni n

Adı Soyadı : Doaa Ali Mohammed ALBUISSA Numarası : 154229001024

Ana Bilim / Bilim Dalı : Uluslararası İlişkiler/Uluslararası İlişkiler Programı Tezli Yüksek Lisans Doktora Tez Danışmanı : Doç. Dr. Nezir AKYEŞİLMEN

Tezin Adı : The Impact Of Informatıon And Communıcatıon Technology (Ict) On Dıplomacy: Cyber Dıplomacy Between Iraq-Turkey


Diplomacy is one of the most important means of foreign policy for all countries in the world, so the countries seek to develop this means in all possible ways to serve their external interests. Countries have begun to use telegraph and telephone, access to modern means of information and communications technology (ICT), ie means connected to the Internet as a means of social communication, where the name of diplomacy becomes linking with these means, it has become called cyber diplomacy, digital diplomacy, e-diplomacy, Facebook e-diplomacy, Twitter diplomacy or even Telephone diplomacy. Countries have been competing for the development of modern means of diplomacy. No matter how much the dependence of countries on the means of cyberspace for the service of diplomacy, but it still as a supporting means to the development and acceleration of diplomatic work, that does not eliminate the role of diplomats or traditional diplomacy or public diplomacy.

Keywords: Cyber diplomacy, Information and communication technology, Diplomacy, Cyber means, Digital gap.



ICT Informatıon and Communıcatıon Technology

MFA Ministry of Foreign Affairs

DDR Digital Development Review

CD Cyber Dıplomacy



Scientific Ethics Page ... ii

Acknowledgments ... iii Özet...iv Summary... v Abbrevıatıons ... vi INTRODUCTION ... 1 CHAPTER I ... 9



1.1.Methods of Communication and Information ... 16

1.2.Governments and Communications Revolutions... 19

1.3. Digital Gap and Communication Technology ... 22


2.1. Preface About Diplomacy: ... 27

2.2. The Concept of Cyber Diplomacy ... 33

2.3. Objectives of Cyber Diplomacy ... 35

2.4. Characteristic of Cyber Diplomacy ... 36













CONCLUSION ... 80 REFERENCES ... 81 CV ... 88



In the long history of diplomacy, Governments are developing new mechanisms of diplomacy that they consider a central strategic element in the conduct of contemporary international affairs. As societies evolve, new scenarios arise in the field of international relations that demand new methods. Diplomatic practice keeps evolving with the changing world, as it has throughout history, to meet new challenges and respond to new sets of national interests.

Public diplomacy is one of the most important elements of soft power used by states to promote their values and ideas. It has increased interest in the research and academic centers, as well as in official policy circles in the field of public diplomacy, especially after many of the tensions that have swept the world since World War I until these days, where these tensions revealed the need to build bridges between peoples and nations and create spaces for understanding and dialogue. Public diplomacy is defined as a diverse and overlapping range of activities undertaken by States in managing its international relations, shaping its foreign policy and achieving its interests.

International relations have always been deeply influenced by information and communication technology. The Internet in the last 20 years became having a profound impact. It constitutes, alongside the IT systems it connects, a jump in people’s ability to speak each (one to many)and (one to many).

With the revolution of digital media and the increasing importance of the role of social networks and applications of smartphones, where these networks have become one of the most important means of public diplomacy, where public diplomacy can address millions of people through this virtually unlimited space, which has become known as "cyber diplomacy or digital diplomacy" or is associated with the means of social media such as "Facebook Diplomacy, Tweeter Diplomacy even Telephone Diplomacy". As well many countries have resorted to the creation of digital diplomacy departments in foreign ministries, presidents' offices and other competent departments, and some countries have created a new position (cyber ambassador) such as the United States of America, states have been using this means to create a base and build confidence with the peoples of the target countries.


On the other hand, this kind of diplomacy is no longer limited to use by government officials as heads of state, foreign ministers or ambassadors, but ordinary individuals, as well as transnational corporations, can be considered a party to this kind of diplomacy. The means of cyber diplomacy have become official means to know the position of a state towards another state or towards a certain position through the statements of those responsible in their accounts on Twitter or Facebook and others, where most of the officials have official accounts on these means, and may be negative or positive statements and actions are taken against these statements from the counterparty, or the statements may cause a crisis between two countries, as happened in 2016 of a media exchange on Twitter between Turkish President Erdogan and Iraqi Prime Minister Haider Abadi on the background of the case of Baashika, where it becomes possible to convey the position of a state towards an issue the fastest way to the world, also these means have a transboundary and transient to sovereignty effect.

Establishing a framework for analyzing the changes that happened via cyber means will help governments and other international actors take strategic decisions based on reality, rather than prediction is a poor basis for strategic planning. as well as more complex risk analysis of how the Internet is changing diplomatic relations will help improve strategic decisions, and engage better with international actors to achieve the desired ends, especially after the resort of some a parties may be states or organized groups to exploit modern ICT as a weapon to attack the other party targeted sensitive institutions in the target country by access to their electronic systems and the theft of information or send viruses to destroy these systems, as happened in Estonia in 2007. Were these means became to have power as power the tactical weapon.

The difference in the extent to which countries rely on cyber means to develop their diplomacy may be due to their lack of material resources, the existence of a closed political system, lack of interest in using these means, or political and security instability which distracts attention from these means. This raises the question of whether the digital gap affects the development of Cyber diplomacy of countries or not? If it has an effect, will the impact be total or partial? This topic is discussed in detail in the research.


The great relevance of ICT and diplomacy, that were influenced by the Internet era revolution, set the stage for the present analysis of the influence of the internet or cyber means on diplomacy in general and on the diplomatic law in particular. These changes will trigger just one more evolutionary step in the history of diplomacy? Or if they will catalyze revolutionary change in how and where? Through whom diplomacy is implemented? How can the protection of diplomatic communication and information in the era of digital surveillance? These questions concern the subject of cyber diplomacy in general as well as on the level of cyber diplomacy between Iraq and Turkey, and the answer will be clear in this thesis.

Cyber diplomacy is a means of soft power, whether at the level of global politics or at the level of foreign policy, so in the book (Bound to Lead), Nay argues that the speed of communication has not changed due to ICT, but the low cost of communications has helped to increase the ability to communicate. According to him, the sources of power in world system are no longer limited to the military force, but also include the means of modern diplomacy, that became gradually replacing them. In conjunction with the reluctance of many countries of the world toward using military force to the force associated with peaceful means, ie targeting societies and gain their trust by diplomacy, thus can affect the political system in the target country. So this policy has become one of the important strategic pillars of many countries, especially, the major countries such as the United States, Germany, also Turkey, Italy, and many other countries. Are states take the following steps, such as attractive power, a country’s culture, political ideals and values, and policies, like elements to apply cyber diplomacy toward the target countries?.

As for the importance of cyber diplomacy for foreign policy or for global policy as a whole, so by increasing dialogue with foreign audiences and creating an enabling international context, cyber diplomacy represents a strategic means of advancing concrete national interests in the international affairs, for example, US Defense Secretary Colin Powell considers that it is crucial that deepening contacts be developed at all levels to maintains US leadership on the global stage and to compete with its European partners in an area of strategic importance.


An important aspect of cyber diplomacy is the use it also as an approach to cooperation in order to maintain cybersecurity of states, because many countries, especially the powerful countries on the international scene, are vulnerable to cyber attacks or have already been targeted at the vital sectors of the target country, especially in recent years such as what Russia did to the US. The commitment of states to law or legislation that deals with cybersecurity considered a product of diplomatic efforts and makes cyberspace not a lawless zone, as agreed by Group 20 in their meeting in Antalya, Turkey, in 2015 on the protection of the commercial efforts of States and the non-use of cyber means to steal them. So is there binding international law in this area?.

On another hand, cyber diplomacy can be carried out by governmental and non-governmental entities (Companies and NGOs) through business or cultural activities because these two elements have a large social and political impact, as well as one of the reasons that led to the development of cyber diplomacy and international cooperation at present is the increase in terrorist attacks, whether electronic or armed attacks, as well as organized crime, in addition to the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Here also we can talk about the means of cyber diplomacy, one of the most effective means of cyber diplomacy is international partnerships, by intensifying international partnerships and dialogues based on political, economic or even cultural foundations. So are the means of cyber diplomacy limited to this or exceeded? Will the increase in the use of modern communications and information technologies by countries lead to creating new means of supporting their diplomacy to compete with other countries at the international or regional level? As well as the important question, will cyber diplomacy replace traditional diplomacy or not? This is what we will find in the thesis result.

Diplomacy between Iraq and Turkey has tended to calm since its beginning in the last quarter of the twentieth century. As for modern diplomacy tend to use the means of public and cyber diplomacy with regard to the educational aspect and the exchange of scientific competencies, the commercial side and Military logistics. So has cyber diplomacy affected positively or negatively the Iraqi-Turkish relations? And what is the most effective state in this area is Iraq or Turkey? This is what was discussed in chapter three. The impact of ICT on the political side of the exchange of negative or positive


statements, especially what happened in 2016. In addition, the stability of the mutual relations between the two parties led to the development of diplomacy and thus the development of economic relations. The bilateral relations culminated in 2009 in the security, economic and communication fields and other, through the establishment of the strategic cooperation council between the two countries, where about 40 agreements were signed between the two countries on strategic political and economic issues as well as in the field of energy.


The purpose of this thesis is to research and analyze about:

 Research about how ICT effects on diplomacy, whether passively or positively.  Knowing what cyber diplomacy is, and whether it differs from traditional diplomacy.

 Cyber diplomacy that being dependent on modern technological means associated with the Internet, which facilitated diplomatic performance, so is this will eliminate the role of the diplomat in the future?.

 Researching if the ICTs have impacted on diplomatic relations between Iraq and Turkey since 2003 until now?.

 To know is Iraq more advancing than Turkey In this type of diplomacy or vice versa?.

 To stand on the problems experienced by countries, including Iraq and Turkey, in order to identify the defect to be addressed in the future by the competent authorities.


 Researches on the impact of ICT on diplomacy, in general, is very limited, and researches about the impact of ICT on Iraqi-Turkish diplomacy, in particular, is almost non-existent. Therefore, it is necessary to contribute to this field with more related researches.

 The subject of cyber diplomacy is a new and vital subject which is one of the requirements of power in the age of new media and the fourth generation of communication.


 This thesis opens up a new area that calls for attention to the field of digital diplomacy and to begin to formulate a strategic policy to use this technology as a tool for the promotion of ideas and values, especially with regard to Iraqi-Turkish foreign policies.


 The first hypothesis: Cyber diplomacy will dominate traditional diplomacy.  The second hypothesis: Cyber diplomacy will contribute to promote international relations.

 The third hypothesis: Cyber diplomacy will increase diplomatic cooperation between Iraq and Turkey.


The study shows the historical evolution of diplomacy until the so-called cyber diplomacy, in light of the growing technological and information development in the field of communications, as well as the focus on Iraqi-Turkish diplomacy for the period with the beginning of the 21st century in conjunction with the AKP's handed ruling in Turkey until the present time.


Diplomacy is a term that is often ambiguous and can have many meanings, depending on the purpose for which it is used. Diplomacy can be recognized through two perspectives: macro analysis, which tries to understand global politics, and partial analysis attempts to explain global politics by focusing on the foreign policy behavior of states and governments acting on behalf of those countries. Thus, many writers explain that diplomacy may be synonymous or can be used instead of global politics, international relations, or foreign policy. So there are references to other names such as British diplomacy or Russian diplomacy.

This is why the term "cyber diplomacy" is justified, according to the evolution of diplomatic methods in conjunction with the development of ICT. The concept of cyber diplomacy summarize a series of behaviours and attitudes of the international actors, among which we highlight the availability for dialogue with international


partners, the identification of multilateral consultation mechanisms, the acceptance of compromises in order to overcome misunderstandings, the creation of a global culture regarding cyber security, the confidence building between states, the encouragement of transparency in communication, the identification of common advantages offered by cyberspace, the attention for internal vulnerabilities rather than external threats and the awareness of stakeholders about the cyber risks, threats and vulnerabilities.

In this context of significant increase of politically and militarily motivated cyber attacks, the trust between political leaders is reduced, especially with regard to strict regimes (such as China or Russia), where Internet access is limited, censored or the informatics systems are surveilled. Therefore, along with appropriate defense capabilities, cyber diplomacy development and diplomatic strategies designed to outline the present security environment, are necessary. At the start of the twenty-first century, it has become evident to American leaders that cyber diplomacy has a vital contribution to make to United States foreign policy, as is the case for Germany, Turkey, Britain, and other countries.

It should also be noted that this modern diplomacy has swept through the diplomatic system of most countries of the world, including Iraq and Turkey, where Turkey has done all it can to activate this diplomacy through cyber means to strengthen its relations with countries and especially with Iraq by virtue of the commonalities between the two states and to create a public base in Iraq By virtue of the widespread use of social media. On the other hand, we note that Iraq is still new in this area due to the impact of wars, economic siege, and governmental corruption, but the picture changed for the positive after 2014, where the military logistic cooperation between Iraq and Turkey increased in order to achieve security of the two countries in the fight against Daesh and PKK.


This thesis is based on political and theoretical studies in the field of international relations and diplomacy. The thesis be based on articles, books, and statistics related to the percentage of use of the Internet and means of communication in English and Arabic, as the most available in terms of sources in Turkish on this subject, I also relied on an interview at the Iraqi Foreign Ministry only because the Turkish side


did not agree on an interview. Also, this thesis based on a combination of qualitative and quantitative methodology, as well the use of the comparative approach, for comparison between states, especially Iraq and Turkey, where the researcher studies websites, statistical sides, social networks, and extent of depending on them.

So in this thesis, I will research in the first chapter about the information and communication revolution and cyber diplomacy, that includes in the first topic: Information and Communication Revolution, second topic: the Concept of cyber diplomacy, and third topic: Mechanisms and Means of Cyber Diplomacy to Influence International Relations. While in the second chapter about the impact of information and communication technology on diplomacy that include in the first topic: The impact of communication technology on the political field, second topic: The impact of communication technology on the economic field, and third topic: The impact of communication technology on the military and security field. As well as the third chapter is about the impact of cyber diplomacy in Iraq-Turkey relations, where first topic: Means of cyber diplomacy regarding with Iraq-turkey relations, second topic: areas of impact of cyber diplomacy regarding Iraq and Turkey, and third topic: evaluating the effectiveness of cyber diplomacy in bilateral relations between Iraq-Turkey. At the end of the thesis will be the conclusion.




No one can doubt that we live in an unchanging world and we will live periods of continuous transformation. The technology revolution of communications and informatics, which began its first steps with the invasion of human space global after the launch of the former Soviet Union for the first satellite belonging to the land in 1957 to become the movement of the main driving forces of globalization, the sequel to the stages of evolution especially at the economic level, besides that, a revolution in the field of communications and informatics exceeded the capabilities. At the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st-century work has begun on the development of qualitative and quantitative methods communication and mass media of internet and the number technology. Therefore, the world witnessed a number of influential changes in international relations as well as the diplomatic relations of all kinds. The most important of these changes are the technological developments in the field of communications and information which have become an important element that drives countries to re-formulate their diplomatic objectives in accordance with the technological development of communication and information by all the sectors of the state. So in this chapter, we will address,

1. The concept of communication and information revolution

2. The concept of cyber diplomacy

3. The impact of cyber diplomacy on international relations

1. Information and Communication Revolution

The ICT revolution, began its first step which is considered the most advanced since the beginning of technological development, is the human invasion of cosmic space after the launch of the former Soviet Union for the first satellite of the Earth in 1957 to become a major driving force of the technological revolution, and complementary to the stages of economic successes in the history of mankind since the industrial revolution to the revolutionary discoveries in the field of communication and


informatics that exceeded the capabilities of the invention of telegraph and wired telephone and radio and cinema Graff in the nineteenth century, and then the invention of television in the twentieth century, all this has been a motive force for the quantitative and qualitative development of the means of communication and mass media, which has become one of the important means even of political systems (Abdulhamid, 2015).

The term information revolution refers to the contemporary social, economic and technological trends that followed the industrial revolution, scholars and researchers used many terms to refer to this profound social transformation. The British scientist "J.D. Bernal" (1901-1971) used the term scientific and technological revolution for the

first time in 1938 in his book "The Social Function of Science" to describe the new role science and technology would play in society Stressing that science is becoming a major "productive force" (according to the Marxist conception of the theory of productive forces), after a period of controversy, the authors and scientific centers of socialist countries adopted the term to emphasize that socialism is the safe haven and incubator of the scientific and technological revolution, which is now referred to as STR. The book "Civilization at the Crossroads" (1969), prepared by the Czech philosopher Radovan Ricotta (1924-1983), was the authoritative reference to the revolution in science and technology (Alhaider, 2012)

In 1980, American sociologist Daniel Bell (1919-2011) challenged this theory by calling for the concept of the "Post Industrial Society" which would lead in its view to service economy rather than socialism. Many other authors and thinkers presented differentiated views on this issue, also Zbigniew Brzezinski1924, adopted in 1976 the term "Technetronic Society"* (Alhaider, 2012) Therefore, it is necessary to talk about

the stages of the technological revolution in the field of communications and information, up to the great development in this field, which we are currently witnessing.

John Desmond Bernal (1901-1971) - one of Britain's most famous and controversial scientists. He was known

for using X-ray biological analysis method, making him a pioneer in molecular biology.

* Technetronic Society Is a society dominated by elite, unbound by traditional values. Where the surveillance is

almost continuous on every citizen, and the preservation of files containing the most personal information about the citizen, these files will be subject to immediate retrieval by the authorities.


a. The First Communication revolution

The history of communication development is one of the continuing technological developments. Each new technology has improved the speed, capacity, and reliability of communications, and communication costs have decreased dramatically over time. Every invention is completed by commercial and personal use. Companies used these techniques early, and that individuals also used them in private messages once costs were low, in the last two centuries, there have been two clear “revolutions” in modern communications, where are considered the beginning of technological development in the field of communications (Allison, 2002) The first modern revolution in communication, occurred in the nineteenth century, with the development of the telegraph, that information for the first time in the history of the world, can move more quickly than people and objects. In the past, people were transferring information and relying on transportation. The first Telegraph message in 1832 implied almost instantaneous contact. It required a vast infrastructure: laying cables, developing codes and standard transactions. The point-to-point connection was pushed further with the first telephone conversation in 1876 (Evans, 1998).

As well as the development of the beginning of radio broadcasting, and the transmission of information via the airwaves, the radio, developed at the end of the ninth century, was the first communication medium that could cross borders without permission and could be heard on moving objects such as ships and could be heard by anyone with the right equipment. Still, radio and television operate on a regional scale, not on a global scale, the next invention of television (1927) broadened the scope and range of what could be widely transmitted through the air without having to extend the cable (Allison, 2002).

All of these developments initially surprised peoples and were quickly incorporated into people's expectations: "In the early days, it seemed a miracle to send a message across thousands of kilometers within hours, but over time it became commonplace" of time and space” (Headrick, 1991). For example improvements in transportation, communications technologies increase the scale of commercial enterprises, all of these developments related to technological developing. like a


message that previously would have taken a month could be sent in less than a week once the overland cable from Karachi, Pakistan, to Europe was completed in 1865. The trans-Atlantic cable was completed in 1866, cutting the time between the ordering and the receipt of goods almost in half. As well communications technologies became possible central control of multinational enterprises, so the communications revolution thus led to a managerial revolution that transformed the nature of productive enterprises (Evans, 1998).

The superpowers also promoted the development of communication technologies and agreed to the establishment of international telecommunication networks: "Before conflicts arose over the monitoring and security of international communications, there had to be telegraph lines linking countries to each other. These lines required international agreement ". In fact, these networks require little technological innovation: international cooperation (Headrick, 1991). Besides increasing trade and financial interdependence in the 19th, the communications revolution led to the creation of new international institutions needed to ease transactions, the first telegraph line linking France and Great Britain was in 1851 (Allison, 2002)Therefore international relations have promoted and the same thing with the diplomatical relations. Before the outbreak of conflicts over the control of communication lines, Great Britain was the dominant telegraph system and countries were satisfied with this hegemony and the economic gains of Britain (Headrick, 1991). During a period of relative Great Peace, states were willing to allow monitoring medium of communications by British. But with the resurgence of superpower competition at the end of the 19th century and the prospect of censorship and espionage, France and Germany built their own cable networks.

But the negative side of communication revolutions in the 19th century was

two-edged: these revolutions helped countries to develop in the economic sphere and increase communication between nations, but they were also used for war and led to conflicts, even with increased international contacts and understanding. The


innovations of the nineteenth century became central to modern warfare and increased political and military control (Allison, 2002)The managerial revolution made possible by telecommunications and Information was the key to consolidating and controlling warfare, according to one historian, “Effective centralized command depended on new means of transport and communication”(Headrick, 1991).

Moreover, governments wanted to be able to maintain the confidentiality of their communications, even as these forms of communication increased their ability to spy and collect information. Centralized channels of communication made them weapons of war, or asymmetry in the nature and use of communication technology is the difference between victory and defeat on the battlefield (Headrick, 1991). Once regional expansion once again became a clear target for European countries, governments became more active in controlling and developing communications technology. While communication technology has increased profits for financiers, manufacturers, and entrepreneurs during the 19th century, where transaction costs have been reduced, the same technology has led to great efficiency and increasingly effective strategies in larger wars than ever before in the first half of the 20th century (Allison, 2002)

b. The Second Communication revolution

This period included the development of real broadcasting, which enabled public and private entities to send out information from one source to many people and places at once (e.g., through television pictures), also included the development of satellites (that first launched in 1960), which made it possible to cover anyplace on earth to any other, also these developments have led to other significant reductions in the cost of communications, an increases in speed and accuracy, and in areas that can now be linked immediately. Global proliferation and radio broadcasting, the ability to reach large numbers of people from a single source, very different from point-to-point communication in the nineteenth century. Governmental and private organizations can reach citizens in their country and across borders. In addition, these developments in technology have once again stimulated international trade and have helped to increase


the growth of multinational corporations and foreign direct investment (Allison, 2002)

Governments have been quick to recognize the benefits of implementing improvements in communications and use them in warfare, during the period of Cold War, satellite technology was funded by the U.S. and Soviet governments, for security reasons. Instantaneous and reliable communications were developed, for warfare, these developments included accurate guidance systems for cruise missiles, “smart” laser-guided bombs which used in the Gulf War, as well as vastly improved command and control systems with which to coordinate forces and which, also become the target of war (Allison, 2002) As we knew that earlier advances in communications, improvements in the twentieth century have continued to reduce the cost of communicating and to broaden the speed and scope of transactions, that led to lower the cost of trade and investment. Communications technologies provide more and more recent information that promote better decision-making both for security, political and economic issues (Jones, 1987).

As well as, broadcasting itself was utilized by expansionist and authoritarian regimes, which took advantage of such advances in communications to spread propaganda that supports their interests, for possible expansion. such as has happened in the period of the First World War, and during the Cuban Missile Crisis due to flows of information. There are also serious mistakes committed by states in dealing with issues based on the information they receive, which could lead to war: the preemptive Israeli strike that began the Six-Day War in 1967 came in the wake of observations on the mobilization of Egyptian forces, on another side, what diminishes the probability of conflict, are institutions and norms or agreements, such as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, the World Trade Organization, and the International Monetary Fund. Access to accurate, rapid information makes these institutions more effective, helps spread cooperative norms, that encourage cooperation and help mitigate conflict (Allison, 2002)

In the post-World War II era, communication innovations have been somewhat enhanced towards a world of peaceful relations, not war. According to many researchers, after World War II, communication technologies and technological advances weren`t used to expand the occupation of other countries as much as before


the war, but countries began using these technologies at the end of the century to consolidate their power, control their populations and control information, thus acquiring a powerful propaganda tool to support their interests. As well as to expand its influence through multinational companies, especially in developing countries, especially the oil-rich, through which to obtain confidential information about competitors for more successful policies, such as these uses of communication technology are still being used up to the present time. Therefore, there is a light side and a dark side to the application of these technologies.

c. The Third Communication revolution (The End of the Millennium)

This period linked to the third modern communications revolution that includes the development of the Internet and networking, linking any number of distant sites in multidirectional communications. As known that the Internet itself is the product of American defense, began during the Cold War as a network created by the ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) of the Ministry of Defense (called ARPANET) (Allison, 2002) This “revolution” is a mix of point-to-point and broadcasting types of communications. With new advantage that the transfer of information is not only through the radio or TV, but through any personal computer with a modem, in order to provide Internet service, which was initially limited to military uses in the sixties of the twentieth century, but over time became available to ordinary citizens, and has emerged another issue is how to Maintain the security of information flowing that may be used as a weapon by some groups or states in a negative way.

As with other advances in communications, so this technology can be used for commercial or military ends. As well as where the emergence of the Internet contributed to increases speed of communications technology, and reduce the cost of transferring information, thus can lower the costs of trade and investment, or can broaden the speed and scope of military action. More accurate information can help prevent misunderstandings among states or even individuals, or increasing the speed and flow of information can lead to misjudgment of the issues for which information related to, which may lead, for example, to a crisis between trade rivals or be exploited flowing


information to create a crisis among countries


networks and the internet have a similar effect on government control, such as radio. Transnational links are improved once the government controls its citizens. It is alleged that the wired world will provide democracy (through the easy access of issues to public opinion without restriction), wealth and peace, therefore there is talk about (cyberocracy, cyberology, and the cybercratic State) according to regimes and who dealing with modern communication and information revolution (Ronfeldt, 1991).

According to researchers, these evolutions in ICT, domestic demands for the pursuit of prosperity have increased, accompanied by increased pressure to deregulate communications and the free flow of information, which comes from both corporate and financial institutions as well as from private citizens. Although, that governments do try to retain as much control over information as possible, despite difficulties to achieve it and the high cost to do that.

Thus, with the increasing use by the mass media of modern electronic publishing methods, it has greatly increased the satisfaction of people with information wherever they are, which is what has called (the information society) the entry of information and knowledge into the era of globalization (Abdulhamid, 2015) Electronic devices and the Internet have become an integral part of people's lives, despite the disparity between peoples in the level of use of these technologies according to levels of wealth or poverty

1.1.Methods of Communication and Information

The attempt to control the mind and behavior of the human being is the focus of communication methods and the transfer of information. The names of the means of communication are different according to the purpose to be achieved. There is a short-term communication process: ( Entertainment), in the long short-term: (Education and culture), by the printed word (The newspaper and the book printed paper or through the Internet), the audible word ( Radio), or the sound and the image ( Television and cinema). There are several forms of communications depending on the purpose of the communication process.

In the science of the future, cyber theory describes a virtual form of government, governing by the effective


The Public Opinion:

Communication of all types and levels plays a fundamental role in the process of public opinion. When there is an issue that concerns people, it is up to the media that provides information, and different views on that issue are presented by individuals and officials, the media play a major role in influencing the public opinion, and its composition in different ways according to the techniques, tactics and methods adopted by (state or group) in whose interest it is to form public opinion among the public to serve their interests, as a source of information, people are encouraged to pursue it more with the intention of: see new information (Hatem, 1996) And the formation of a public opinion is using a good method to formulate the information material in such a way that it becomes believable and beyond doubt. Some countries focus on spreading their culture within other countries and forming public opinion in favor of that culture, that some for describing it (Cultural colonialism) (Abdulhamid, 2015) The press is the first of all the media in terms of influencing the public opinion, because it is more concerned than other media to dealing with political and social issues, and discuss them, and the presentation of different views, the methods that also influenced on public opinion (television) and (radio), which are also main ways of transmitting information (Azzam, 2005)


The media is an important source of guidance and education in any society, with different interests, intellectual, academic and social levels. The role of the media is determined by the impact it can have on the society or the environment in which it is located, as an important source of information(Al-Badrani, 2011) However, the media from the practical point of view has been employed outside the scope of the real field in the transfer of news, in order to achieve individual, collective and international interests by the transfer of some news and facts, and omission of others, to change the convictions of individuals and groups towards the wrong trends, and create a public opinion to serve those who have an interest in the transfer of such news, as some see the media: the best way to manufacture minds (Makki, 2014)


The vast superiority of the West in the field of informatics and communications is a threat in the case of misuse of the field of informatics for aggression, through the control of the West and directed to media campaigns to achieve their interests, for example, the bombing of Afghanistan and Iraq was promotion for it as a fight against terrorism and the liberation of peoples, which is the opposite (Abdulhamid, 2015).


Is a communication activity for the transfer and marketing of ideas or news or information based on some truth, in order to gain public opinion or avoid or change it towards a certain direction (Fayyad, 2003) Propaganda is based on achieving its goals to, lie, disguise, mislead and hide a part of the facts, or make those facts distorted, and propaganda is usually directed to emotion not to reason, as well as propaganda has images and various forms, including commercial propaganda within the scope of advertising, political, military or economic propaganda (Kayali, 1985).

The Psychological War:

Is part of the propaganda work and be directed to the opponent to destroy his morale, Psychological warfare is a picture of the fighting to the enemy, and in order to succeed the psychological war must be studied the enemy in a deeply and objective, to know its language, religion, history and lifestyle, as well as its social and economic system and cultural heritage and civilization, without this knowledge and study can not influence the enemy or gain psychological warfare, as well as there are many tools of psychological warfare: (Rumors) mean: confusion of ideas and sabotage, (Unrest) mean: to encourage the creation of chaos (Fayyad, 2003)


It is a method of psychological dealing, which is in the process of destroying individual personality, to the extent of violent rupture, so that it can be manipulated to access this character to become an easy tool to transfer the ideas and ideology of the enemy community of the target, Such as the policy practiced by the Communist Party of China and Russia towards its people and other peoples (Fayyad, 2003)


(The impact of Communication`s Methods, figure No.1 )

In evaluating the patterns or methods of the communication process, we note there is a gradient between them, depending on the depth of the relationship between the contact person and the public. The media or another communication tools did not carry the traditional meaning of disseminating information and ideas. The authority uses these tools to control information, and then to the promotion and disseminate information that is intended to create specific ideas and trends, as well as distorting news and information in a way that makes it appear new and familiar with the audience. Communication patterns have become outputs of inputs used by the communications revolution following the spread of satellite channels and satellites dedicated to the communication process in one way or another.

1.2.Governments and Communications Revolutions

Among many of the conventional wisdoms about communications technologies, that these technologies empower people and reduce the power of the state. Thomas Carlyle wrote in 1836 about the effects of the invention of the printing press in the fifties of the 15th century "is the first to shortened the employment of copyists with the device of moveable, replaced the leased armies, and cashiering of most of kings and senators and create a democratic world in full" (Neuman, 1996) Although Carlisle's


statement has become applicable to the current situation as a result of the wide development in the information field, information can be obtained without relying on the government.

Thus, one of the effects of this modern technology faced by countries is the decentralization of telecommunication technologies means that it is more difficult for the state to exercise central control, thus, the current argument is that communication techniques are changing relations between people, between rulers and their citizens, and between rulers (Surman, 1996) There is another argument that governments in the information age will have to be honest because the citizenry became can access to information. For example, the Chernobyl nuclear reactor explosion in Ukraine in 1986, "was quickly photographed by a French satellite and moved to all parts of the world, so the Soviet Union had to talk about it while hiding some facts (News, 2016)Another effect of the information and communication revolution is that it helps to overthrow regimes, for example, as in the Arab Spring revolutions, the use of social media to mobilize citizens against governments and overthrow them, also brought down Communist rule in the former Soviet Union (Abdulhamid, 2015) This factor can also be used by countries or groups through the use of newspapers, books or electronic information, which can affect relations between countries negatively or positively, as happened before the occupation of Iraq in 2003, or to gain access to other countries and create a base for them.

Governments recognized that organizations (GO) in effect control the flow of technology to societies by purchasing, investing, subsidizing, patenting, sharing or withholding secrets, and many other means and these organizations could be governmental, like multinational corporations (Headrick, 1991)As well the control over small countries has been replaced by a multinational organization, lessening the chance of conflict between superpowers somewhat (Allison, 2002), governments' position on these developments whether in the 19th century or at present time:

1. Have tried to retain control, so we note all kinds of governments decided to benefit from the new technologies: (Autocracies like Russia, democracies like the United States, colonial regimes like India, even non-Western states like Turkey and


Japan all seized upon it [the telegraph] as a means of enhancing their power and improving their efficiency (Headrick, 1991).

2. During periods of war, countries identified radio waves such as Britain, while Japan banned them, to limit the spread of reform ideas, and to maintain control over information and propaganda tools (Taylor, 1990) It is not easy to control the content of information or communications fully by the government, because it is very costly, also in light of existing of satellites, given modern day communications and increased transnational links, but states promoted their control partly by expanding communications technology (Allison, 2002).

3. Open democratic governments that do not have the direct control over media have found that the media can be constrained, also can be using military censorship at a time of crisis at most, example: Coalition forces were able to confine the media during the Gulf conflict to their benefit.

4. Governments have been central to the development and growth of communications technologies. It has also been at the forefront of developing new communications technology for war. We can see, for example, transformed the U.S. government's relationship with universities by providing a scholarship to the military began to receive public support and funding.

The number of countries that cooperate to access communications satellites will continue to grow in the future. Thus these ties will lead to continued pressure for intergovernmental cooperation, which has been a pre-requisite to the cross-border flow of information and the wiring of the world. However, information and communication technologies of various means have existed for the good of mankind, but the divergence of interests between countries and the different policies and competition led to the use of this technology to attack countries or as a means of protection against the aggression of other countries as in the Cold War, it competed with technology in domain of weapons development, deterrence and protection systems.

Despite the technological development in the field of communications and information that has swept the world, there is a difference between countries regarding the extent of their response to these developments, or adoption in their internal or external policies, this situation is called the (Digital Gap), who we will talk about it below.


1.3. Digital Gap and Communication Technology a. Digital Gap:

The information and communications revolution have enabled peoples to access a vast wealth of information, as well as instant communication between individuals, or between them and research and information centers to reach the latest scientific findings. However, this enormous development has put a number of peoples (developing or poor) in the face of new problems. Some countries have the ability to produce, disseminate, exchange and benefit from the information in the social, political, cultural and economic fields, and deprivation or inability of other countries to produce this wealth led to the emergence of the digital gap.

The term "digital gap" emerged in the United States and at a local level in 1995, when the US Department of Commerce's report Falling Through the Net was published, the report drew attention to the fact that there was a big difference between the categories of people In the extent of the use of communication technology, especially computers, and the Internet, then this concept was used worldwide, highlighting the information gap between the developed and the developing world in terms of the access to information resources and knowledge, and the ability to exploit them (Nabil Ali ve Hijazi, 2005) This term has multiple interpretations, according to the economic, social, political and other reasons. But the overarching definition includes the creation of new knowledge through research and development institutions, as well as production and service institutions. Therefore the Digital Gap is the set of challenges imposes by the accelerating rate of the development of ICT, and the difficulties faced by developing countries in deploying this technology, and its implantation into the community entity (Nabil Ali ve Hijazi, 2005).

b. Reasons for the Emergence of Digital Gap:

The reasons for the emergence of the digital divide differ according to the difference of viewpoints on this subject, the difference levels of dealing with it locally, regionally or globally, as well as the difference in the social unity targeted in technological development, whether individuals, groups, institutions or countries and its position on the ladder of social and economic progress, and the availability of human,


natural and material resources. The EU, the World Bank and the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) have tried to explain the reasons for this gap. The consensus was that the reasons as follows:

1. Social and Cultural Reasons

These factors have contributed to the widening gap between developed and developing countries because of the penetration of these technologies into the social and cultural structure of any society, as well as in the pattern of the economy, and the value system and the structure of social forces. The low level of education and lack of learning opportunities in developing countries, as well as the community stagnation , as most of the developing countries' societies are weak in their capacity to change due to prevailing values and traditions, and educational policies that do not seek to develop the will to change or renewal, in addition to the organizational and legislative stagnation, where not to allow balanced participation in the development by the three sectors of society: government, private and private (Ali, 2007).

2. Economic Reasons

This group represented in the high cost of localization of ICTs locally, due to the high cost of build up the infrastructure for the establishment of communication networks, and the high cost of developing the quality of these networks, in addition, economic communication between developed countries is through electronic commerce, and this communication is growing at an increasing rate, which severely weakens the competitive position of the institutions of developing countries (UNDP), 2002-2004) In addition to increasing economic alliances among developed countries, which directly or indirectly lead to the fragmentation of developing countries into small entities orbiting these giant alliances, as well as the expansion of multinational companies in the field of (ICT) to distribute their products and services beyond their borders and at the global level, this leads to the gradual weakening of the local development companies and the erosion of their markets (Wahab, 2008).


3. Political Reasons

The gap here related to weak or lack of public policies guaranteeing development in the fields of communication and information. The development of such policies in developing countries is characterized by (Extreme complexity), where the correlation of development in the fields of communication and information with the fields of social or economic development, as opposed to the slow response of governments to these developments, because the reconciliation between information development and development in other areas as well inclusion them in the list of priorities must be a high degree of awareness lacking most political leaders, as well as the control of the governments of developing countries on the means of communication and information locally, on the pretext of protecting national security, where it controls the information outlets, especially in the field of media, as most of these governments refuse to provide a sophisticated quality from media and communication means, fear that this threatens the central control of information (Ali, 2007).

As well as foreign intervention and invasion of countries another reason for widening the gap, for example, what happened to Iraq because of the US invasion in 2003, their main objective was to steal oil and destroy the telecommunications sector and infrastructure of the Iraqi scientific research sector and arrest its senior scientists. The scientific progress achieved by Iraq, especially in the atomic and genetic fields, guarantees Iraq scientific, technological and economic progress and competitiveness at the international level, especially in the globalization age (Abdulhamid, 2015).

3. Technological Reasons

The development of communication and information technology includes the development of the production of spare parts for electronic devices, as well as the development of operating software for communication and information systems. The production of computer hardware and the organization of communications, as well as the operating software, has become the monopoly of several giant companies, and this leads to the aggravation of technological isolation, thus making it impossible for developing countries to catch up with the technological advances in developed countries, for example, the control of 88 companies, of which 39 are American


companies, 19 are European, 7 are Japanese, which specialize primarily in the software industry, and the electronic hardware industries have abandoned it to the developing countries (Makki, 2014).

With regard to the media sector, despite the large number of Arab-language television stations that may reach 150 stations, the international news agencies (which represent their owners, of course) are trying to spread at the expense of Arab channels to prevent them from reaching the world stage by publishing news in the way they want, Taking advantage of the freedom of modernization and development available to them without compliance with professional laws, which did not have this freedom a large part of the Arab media channels, such as the case of the Syrian media, which suffers in the issues of modernization and development to be able to compete and solve the problems created by the long years of state ownership (Abdulhamid, 2015) But the question is whether the situation will remain the same, which is represented by the technological difference between countries? Is it possible to solve this dilemma by activating international cooperation between the producers of technology and developing countries to promote the technological reality of the rest of the countries? It should be noted, however, that the evolving of the State's internal policies for development will be reflected in the evolving of societies and not remain isolated. Thus, this development will be reflected in foreign policy, ie, ICT will play an important role in the foreign relations of the state.

To illustrate the manifestations of the digital gap, it is necessary to find out the facts by numbers that show the reality of this gap between countries in the field of ICT. This technology, as supplies, as an industry or as a prevalence, is still the exclusive of scientifically developed countries. It should be noted that some countries are rich in terms of material resources, but there is no using of these resources to achieve evolving and development in the field of technology or others, so most countries in the developing world have not been able to keep up this development and interaction with it, about a third of the world's Internet users live in the United States and one-third in Europe, Japan, South Korea, and Southeast Asia, for example: in the Netherlands there places for Internet connectivity and using more than in Latin American countries and the Caribbean combined, on other hand Asia and Africa have little access to computers


and the Internet, according to ITU ( International Telecommunication Union) statistics, in Asia there are 4,45 computers for (1000) people, and in Africa (1.3) only, while the Internet, among 45 countries in Asia, there are 26 countries in which information on the Internet is available, and the international network uses about 50% of the people in these countries (Makki, 2014).

As well around the world, computers are around 250 million, 40% of them in America, 40% in the great seven states, and only 20% are for 5.5 billion people, while in the field of telephons, for example, in the United States and Sweden there are 600 telephones per 1,000 inhabitants, while in Chad there is one telephone per 1,000 people (Abdulhamid, 2015) As for television, there are about 2 billion television stations spread around the world, half of the households in half the world do not have a television, and 40 countries have only 10% , While in developed countries we see that the number of TVs is equal to or exceeds the number of households (Dajani, 1997)

This shows that practically all information and all discoveries in this field are concentrated in countries where 15% of the world's population lives. The enormous technological progress in the field of communications and information that the world is witnessing today does not negate the fact that there is an unbalanced distribution of these technologies, and this will not disappear in the near term because of the continuing causes and factors of its existence and aggravation (Makki, 2014) The disparities between people and nations are widening exponentially. The disparity between countries is offset by another disparity within each country separately, where a minority of the population taking over the greater part of the national income and wealth while the majority of the population lives on the sidelines (Martin ve Schumann, 1998).

It should also be noted that the path of technological development goes side by side with the path of social, economic and political development in the developed countries. This is not happening in developing countries, or it occurs slowly, creating a gap between the level of technology and the demands of these societies. Therefore creating a gap between states.



Diplomacy is subject to change in concepts, functions, and performance, as is the case with other humanitarian activities: humanitarian, social, cultural and political communication, as a result of the development of society and changing its patterns and behavior. Diplomacy remained as a concept of an ongoing, preserving its general nature, but communication and information technology had brought important changes in means of diplomatic communication, and methods of diplomatic action. Therefore, we will deal with this topic: what is diplomacy in general, and then we discuss cyber diplomacy in detail.

2.1. Preface About Diplomacy:

Diplomacy is an ambiguous term used in the study of world politics. It can have different meanings depending on user and usage. Diplomacy is synonymous with international relations, foreign policy, or world politics, for example: diplomacy of major powers, diplomacy of superpowers, summit diplomacy, and crisis diplomacy, and here are who refer to diplomacy as a behavior of foreign policy, for example: Russian diplomacy or British diplomacy, these uses alert us that diplomacy is central to understanding world politics as a whole, as well as foreign policy behavior of countries and other international players (Bells ve Smith, 2004).

The diplomatic aspect is the basis for the preparation and implementation of the foreign policy of countries, the policy of peace and war is achieved through the so-called diplomacy, it also achieves protection the interests of individuals and countries.

Diplomacy can also be defined as "The management of international relations by negotiation" (Marshall, 2005) If the global policy is characterized by a tension between conflict and cooperation, diplomacy stands in the side of cooperation to resolve the dispute through negotiation and dialogue through (Persuasion, settlement or compromise, reconciliation, and the promise of rewards or intimidation of punishment, as well Gorbachev said that in the era of weapons of mass destruction, security can not be achieved by increasing weapons but by cooperating between the conflicting parties (Bells ve Smith, 2004) In general, "diplomacy" is defined as: "the set of international norms, principles and agreements that concern the regulation of relations between states and international organizations, and the principles to be followed in the application of


the provisions of international law, the reconciliating between the interests of different states, the art of negotiations at international meetings and conferences, treaties and agreements " (Makki, 2014).

Therefore, it is necessary to know the types of diplomacy and its advantages in recognizing the stages of its development:

a. Traditional Diplomacy

The traditions and mechanisms of diplomacy have developed at historical intervals, the origins of the world diplomatic system, which are linked to the Italian embassy in the fifteenth century, where permanent embassies were established for the first time and soon followed by other European countries, where Milan was the first to send a permanent expedition to Genoa in 1455 (Hamilton ve Langhorne, 2010)

For hundreds of years, diplomacy has been related to kings, their advisers and personal greediness in particular and the issues related to war and peace, in general, are the most important topics on the agenda of traditional diplomacy but it failed to prevent the First World War, traditional diplomacy is also called Old diplomacy, Bilateral diplomacy, and the French or Italian diplomatic system, as well traditional diplomacy is a process of communications between modern states but not between political organizations such as the Catholic Church, on another hand the absence of a common international forum for negotiation, the leaders of the countries (the kings usually) had to negotiate indirectly, and the diplomats were sent abroad for this purpose. In addition, the negotiations were secret and military power has often been one of the main means of defending the national interests of States in the facing of each other, but these ambassadors quickly turned into institutions, the permanent embassies were later linked to the foreign ministries existing in their countries, not with the leaders (Bells ve Smith, 2004).

But what makes Venice the real founder of the so-called Permanent Diplomatic Mission is that it was the only state in that era that accurately organized the diplomatic function and established what is known as the "diplomatic corps" where diplomats began to appear in the modern sense of the word, also traditional or bilateral diplomacy


Figure no.3


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