• Sonuç bulunamadı

View of Applying Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM) to obtaining the Expert Consensus in Aesthetic Experience (AX) and User Experience (UX) Elements in Augmented Reality Comic (AR Comic)


Academic year: 2021

Share "View of Applying Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM) to obtaining the Expert Consensus in Aesthetic Experience (AX) and User Experience (UX) Elements in Augmented Reality Comic (AR Comic)"

Daha Fazlasını Göster ( sayfa)

Tam metin


Research Article


Applying Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM) to obtaining the Expert Consensus in Aesthetic

Experience (AX) and User Experience (UX) Elements in Augmented Reality Comic (AR


Mohd Ekram AlHafis bin Hashim1, Muhammad Zaffwan Bin Idris2*, Che Soh Bin Said3

1,2*,3Creative Multimedia Department, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Perak, Malaysia

ekram@fskik.upsi.edu.my1, zaffwan@fskik.upsi.edu.my2*, chesoh@fskik.upsi.edu.my3

Article History:Received: 10 November 2020; Revised: 12 January 2021; Accepted: 27 January 2021; Published online: 05 April 2021

Abstract: This paper discusses the application of Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM) to obtain the expert consensus inAesthetic

Experience (AX) and User Experience (UX) elements for Augmented Reality Comic (AR Comic). Theoretically, AR and comics are two distinctive fields that represent the technology and art. The former is Human Computer Interaction (HCI) for AR and the later is an art form for comic. Consequently, the UX elements are commonly used by scholars to measure AR, while the AX elements are used for evaluate comics. The purpose of this study is to formulate a new elements in AR comic.Thus,both AX and UX elements are subsequently being merged and the consensus from expertsfrom both fields are required. The FDM was selected in this study based on the ability of this method to obtain the constructs and the elements objectively with suggestion and reflection from the selected experts. Expected results from expert consensus are the combination of both elements as a new framework of AR comic.

Keywords:Augmented Reality Comic (AR Comic), Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM), Aesthetic Experience (AX), User

Experience (UX), Human Computer Interaction (HCI)

1. Introduction

The rapid technology development in HCI since early 2000 hasinduced recent discoveries such as multimedia applications, interactive media, creative media and new media. At the same time, the technology derives withdevices that support the development of new software and application technology in the HCI fields (Alivi et al, 2018). Henceforth, when media technology as if reaching its climax, it has been denied with the existence of Mixed Reality (MR) encompassing Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) (Gladden, 2018). Devices that support the presence of the technology have also evolved extensively from CD-ROMs, I-pod, MP4 player, to the presence of mobile devices such as smart devices, VR boxes, VR head sets and AR glass capable of accelerating the development of an intermedia world that beyond interactivity (Cucovic et al., 2016).

Point often overlooked is technology and devices are closely related to design and art elements as the frontend,which will influence users to utilise and acquire a technology product or device (Boreczky et al., 2000). The art elements contained in an aesthetic object psychologically has a profound impact on the user's emotion and aesthetic experience (Dittmar, 2012). There are many art-based applications in technology and devices such as, nowadays painters use tablets to draw and color, produce comics, create imaginative worlds in VR, enhance their knowledge experience with AR, create digital sound and coordinate dance with Motion Capture (Tobita, 2010). This scenario emphasised the strong evidence that technology and devices require art or aesthetic knowledge to enlarge the reach and capabilities of technology created in the HCI world (Gamberini et al., 2016)

AR Comic

Since the existence of Circa comic books in 1934, the evolution of comics has been come together with the advances in technology, devices, thinking, socio-culture and intellect. The multimedia era perceived that comics created on the CD-ROMS platform and the web comics (Ayer, 2004). After that, the millennium era discerned that comics come with interactive features and began to accesses online (Hashim & Idris, 2016). Henceforth, the explosion of the industry revolution 4.0 when the existence of MR platform offers the experience that beyond interactivity began to be explored as a new method of providing a thrilling experience in reading comics (Gironacci et al., 2018).

AR is one of the platforms included in MR representing the interoperability platform currently used in various fields. Popular in military, medical and aerospace, AR is now widely used in education, games and arts (Speicher, 2019).AR comic was first introduced commercially in 2016 when Stuart Campbell produced a comic with an AR application and sold it online. Similarly, a comic produced by Marvel entitled ‘Master of the Sun’features an AR application to enhance the comic reading experience.Again, comics have evolved in line


with technology but still retain the aesthetic elements. The use of technology enhances the user experience and sensation, while reading comics with the integration of technology and art (Smith, 2015;Vassiliadi & Sylaiou, 2018).


AXis commonly discussed on conceptual of aesthetic objects such as flower, river, sky, music, performance, screen play, dance and drawing. Hence, Parsons(1987), emphasised that each level of response to the aesthetic objects indicates the level of comprehension of the beholder knowledge and experience about the artworks. Meanwhile, Moens (2018) account on AX believed that it is a unique relationship between feelings and perceptions that inflict the conceptual of feelings likewise awe, admiration, joy, delight and pleasure (Schoeller & Perlovsky, 2016).

On another occasion, Harrison and Clark (2016)postulated that AX is a form of subjective judgment that is definitely different from other humans. Its accurately refers to a sense of taste that mostly reflection on the ability of humans being cultivating perceptions and sensitivity to the aesthetic objects around them (Uribe, 2013).

Theoretically, AX agrees with the uniqueness of the cognitive, perceptual and emotional relationships that involve the sense of taste between humans. This connection sense is subjective but can be present empirically towards a phenomenon (object, events, sounds or other perception) or a set of phenomena such as a set of objects, melody, screen play and drawing. Thus, the cognitive processes the perception and emotions more scientifically visualized through human feelings.

The Construct and Element of AX for Comic

In the discipline of comic art, the constructs and elements of AX has long been practiced as an affirmation of the imagination and surprise inveighing beyond the soul's pleasure are called playful or humorous. It is necessary, strengthening the integration between humors and AX are designed to evoke amusement regardless of what aesthetic paradigm is in the various comic genres such as satire, parody, lampoon, burlesque, caricature, farce, slapstick and limerick (Verheyen, 2015).At this point, Morreal (2009) has presented three construct and seven elements of AX in comic art. Indeed, the highlighted AX is categorised as amusement, paradox of tragedy and mental jolts, whereas each category has aesthetic emotions with different modes in order to respond theAX in comic art.

Figure 1. Morreall’s (2009) construct and element of AX in comic art

In other respects, Klaehn (2015) described the most important criteria on aesthetics principle of comics and the aesthetics response,which was integrated with Plutchick’s (1980) theory on emotion that designed the AX of comics. These are; harmony (verisimilitude, accuracy) and storytelling clarity (Surprise, drama, amazement, authenticity).

In short, AX constructs and elements are usually present in aesthetic objects or aesthetic activities such as painting, sculpture, sculpture, theater, film, comic, illustration and dance. These elements have been validated and studied in accordance with the specifications of aesthetic objects or aesthetic activities. In this study, the elements of AX in comics have already been studied and validated as a guide to future research.


804 UX

Formally, ISO 20101 defines UX involving human perceptions and responses or expectation of responses as a result of using a product, system or service.It is relevant to the UX that includes emotions, beliefs, preferences, perceptions, physical and psychological responses.

Hassenzahl and Tractinsky (2006)pointed out that the focus of UX is on the positive outcome of the interaction and the usability theory, which diffuse on pragmatic aspects that can be objectively defined (Adikari et al, 2016). Meanwhile, Irshad and Rambli (2016) claimed that user experience is the user perceptions integrate interactions with a products, system and services, in matter of effectiveness, efficiency, and the satisfaction (Alenjung et al., 2017; Qu et al., 2016; Kuniasky, 2003).

Nowadays, UX constructs has gained more attention from many studies in HCI specially in AR products. The user needs to go beyond functionality and shift to experiential perspectives not only focusing on the usability but also cognitive, affective aspect, aesthetics and positive feeling towards the product (Wang et al., 2009).

The Construct and Element of UX for AR

Under the circumstances,the knowledge of end-user potential requisite the analyzing what kind of experience expected to evoke. Concerning this, is the research knowledge preparedness to be used in UX design, especially in AR service. The UX itself involves several stages of the mental process, which must be passed. Among them, is the stage of developing (developer) to the end-user (target users).In a practical sense, these stages involve several elements likewise, valuable, UX characteristic, emotion, usability, assessable and desirable (Qu et al., 2016; Klingbeil et al., 2017).

On account of this, Olsson and Mattila (2011) in their study have collected the UXconstructs and elements from many studies using technology including AR and have summarised their UX characteristics with the component technologies shown in the table 1 below.

Table 1.The constructs and elements of UX for AR The construct and element of UX

No Construct Element

1 Efficiency Time, effort.

2 Increase awareness Feeling of discovery, feeling of insights

3 Inspiration Cognitive stimulated, encourages, eager to try new things. 4 Motivation Being motivated, Interaction proactivity

5 Creativity Self-expressive, creative

6 Liveliness Vivid, dynamic

7 Meaningfulness Personal meaningful, relevant 8 Playfulnessand


Joy, amusement, playfulness

9 Captivation Captivate, immerse

10 Intuitiveness Human likeness, naturalness 11 Tangibility Concreteness, coherence

The Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM)

Basically,there are many commonly used methods to extract the expert consensus such as Exploratory Factor Analyzes (EFA), Structural Equation Model (SEM) and Classical Delphi. All of these methodshave the pros and cons of achieving a research goal to gain expert consensus in the context of the study (DeCoster, 1998). EFA requires over 100 samples to obtain data validation, while SEM combines factor analysis with multiple regression analysis using statistical data with qualitative casual assumption whereas Classical Delphi requires multiple rounds to obtain expert consensus (Azargoon et al.,2019).

In this study, the researchersexcerpt FDM as a method in order to obtain expert consensus in the context of formulatingnew constructs and elements to develop an AR comic prototype. The selected experts are heterogeneous and this is in line with the FDM technique itself (Clayton, 1997).In this study, the constructs and elements of AX and UX for comics and AR will be merged interchangeably so that experts are not instructed to


select the elements in stages (Ahmad et al., 2014).In this case, the constructs and elements that have been identified during the systematic literature process will be recursive as question items for experts’ review (Manakandan et al., 2017; Husain et al., 2018).Arising out of this, ten experts consist of the President of Malaysian ComicAssociation, CEO of a comic publication company, comic artist, AR specialist, AR developer and academician from relevant fields are appointed to review the items from the mixture of both UX and AX constructs and elements.

There are three processes of FDM method, namely triangular fuzzy number, defuzzification and ranking. The triangular fuzzy number represents the values m1, m2 and m3, which isthe m1 = minimum value, m2 = reasonable value and m3 = maximum value. Purposely, to produce a fuzzy scale in order to translate the linguistic variables into fuzzy numbers. On account of this, the higher ofthe fuzzy scale of the exact data will obtain (Jamil et al., 2014).

Figure 2. Triangular fuzzy number

Conversely, the defuzzification process involves media values between fuzzy numbers (0-1), and the significant value is below 0.2. This means that measure items or constructs are accepted based on expert consensus. Meanwhile, the proses of ranking are to manage the construct and item according the chronology of main and ultimate construct that been occur by expert consensus (Jafari et al., 2008; Yusop et al., 2018).

There are several levels of fuzzy scales, namely, the level of consensus of seven-point fuzzy scale, five-level fuzzy scale of consensus, seven-position alternative level and five fuzzy scale interest level. In this research, the researchershave implemented the seven-pointfuzzy scaleof agreement for linguistic consensus and the discourse process to the fuzzy scale. This scale can give the expert the opportunity to make more informed choices and enhance the expert's consent (Sapar et al., 2014).On the other hand, the percentage of experts review in this research is inclination exceed 75% for each item, otherwise, construct or elements need to be discarded and constructs and elements will be formulated again. In FDM if the overall percentage has been reaching the expert consensus; therefore, the construct and element are acceptable.

Table2.Seven Point Fuzzy Scale Linguistic variables Fuzzy scale Extremely disagree ( 0.0, 0.0, 0.1) Strongly Disagree ( 0.0, 0.1, 0.3) Disagree ( 0.1, 0.3, 0.5) Moderate (0.3, 0.5, 0.7) Agree (0.5, 0.7, 0.9) Strongly agree (0.7, 0.9, 1.0) Extremely agree (0.9, 1.0, 1.0) Expected Finding

Intrinsically, this study aims to look at the potential of AR Comic, from AX and UX phenomenon. The study expects new constructs and elements from the experts’ consensus after FDM is been applied. Consequently,it is expected that there aresome constructs and elements that will be droppedor managed displace the ranking from FDM result.



However, the researchers still consign the occasion for elements that have been rejected from experts’ consensus to be reserved as a guiding element in producing the AR comic prototype. In addition, the researchersare planning to create a process of synthesizing UX and AX elements to combine with the substantial construct.New constructs and elements to be developed from the AX and UX frameworks through expert consensus, will serve as AR Comic development guides as stimuli and can be applied to the similar aesthetic products.

2. Conclusion

In conclusion, this study proposes the FDM method to contemplate the potential of combining two theories namely AX and UX toward an AR Comic. FDM ability to extract quantitative data with a minimum number of experts enables this study to obtain an efficient yet reliable experts’ consensus. In addition, experts can optimally enhance their expertise in the FDM system even if the expert provides verbal or textual data. Researchers can also make more effective analyzes of the constructs and elements of the experts’ consensus and formulate new combinations of two or more theories. Furthermore, FDM provides a clear picture for the researchers to decide and build more robust and comprehensive stimuli or models.


1. Adikari, S., McDonald, C., & Campbell, J. (2016). Quantitative Analysis of Desirability in User Experience. arXiv preprint arXiv:1606.03544.

2. Ahmad, Z., Muhidin, M., Wasli, P., Salihin, M., & Mohd, H. (2014). Fuzzy Delphi Analysis for Future Environmental Education Using Interactive Animation. 2014.

3. Alenljung, B., Andreasson, R., Billing, E. A., Lindblom, J., & Lowe, R. (2017, August). User experience of conveying emotions by touch. In 2017 26th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (RO-MAN) 1240-1247. IEEE.

4. Alivi, M. A., Ghazali, A. H. A., Tamam, E., & Osman, M. N. (2018). A Review of New Media in Malaysia: Issues Affecting Society. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 8(2),12-29.

5. Ayer, M. (2014). Interactive graphic novels: A hybrid advertising technique. Elon Journal of Undergraduate Research in Communications, 5(2).

6. Azargoon, M., Shabani, A., CheshmehSohrabi, M., &Asemi, A. (2019). Identification of Effective Factors on the Use of" Query Suggestions" through Fuzzy Delphi Method.Library philosophy and practice( e-journal), 2259.

7. Boreczky, J., Girgensohn, A., Golovchinsky, G., &Uchihashi, S. (2000). An interactive comic book presentation for exploring video. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems,185-192 ACM.

8. Clayton, M.J. (1997). Delphi: a technique to harness expert opinion for critical decision-making tasks in education. Educational psychology, vol. 17(4), 373-384.

9. Cucovic, S., Devedzic, G., Ghionea, I., Fiorentino, M., &Subburaj, K. (2016). Engineering design education for industry 4.o: implementation of augmented reality concept in teaching cad course. International Conference on Augmented Reality for technical Entrepreneurs, 11-16

10. Dittmar, J. (2012). Digital comics. Scandinavian Journal of Comic Art: SJoCA; 2, 1.

11. DeCoster, J. (1998). Overview of factor analysis. 1998. Retrieved from: http://www. stathelp. com/notes.

12. Gamberini, L., Orso, V., Beretta, A., Jacucci, G., Spagnolli, A., &Rimondi, R. (2016). Evaluating user experience of augmented reality eyeglasses. annual review of cybertherapy and telemedicine 2015, 28. 13. Gladden, M.E. (2018). A phenomenological “aesthetics of isolation” as environmental aesthetics for an

era of ubiquitous art. The Polish Journal of aesthetics, vol. 49 (2),11-25

14. Gironacci, I. M., Call, R. M., &Tamisier, T. (2018). Mixed reality collaborative storytelling. In Proceedings of the 32nd International BCS Human Computer Interaction Conference (p. 85). BCS Learning & Development Ltd.

15. Hashim, M. E. A. H. B., & Idris, M. Z. (2016). Theoretical Framework and Development Motion Comic Instrument as Teaching Method for History Subject. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 6(11).

16. Hassenzahl, M., &Tractinsky, N. (2006). User experience-a research agenda. Behaviour & information technology, 25(2), 91-97.

17. Harrison, N. R., & Clark, D. P. (2016). The observing facet of trait mindfulness predicts frequency of aesthetic experiences evoked by the arts. Mindfulness,vol7(4), 971-978.


18. Husain, N.M,.Lakulu, M.M.,&Sarkawi, S. (2018). Modelling of PCK competency of programming teachers through fuzzy delphi method. Asia International Multidisciplinary Conference, the European proceedings of Social & Behavioural Sciences.

19. Irshad, S., &Rambli, D. R. A. (2016). Design implications for quality user experience in mobile augmented reality applications. In Advanced Computer and Communication Engineering Technology,1283-1294 Springer, Cham.

20. ISO FDIS 9241-210:2009, Ergonomics of human system interaction-part 210 : Human centered design for interactive systems. International organization for standarisation, 2009.

21. Jamil, M.R.M., Said, S.,&Azeez, M.I.K. (2014).Kopetemsi guru terhadappengurusanpengajarandanpembelajaran: suatupendekatankaedah fuzzy Delphi. Jurnalkepimpinanpendidikan, vol. 1(3), (pp. 77-88).

22. Klaehn, J. (2015).The craft of comics: an interview with comic book artists Norm 23. Breyfogle. Journal of Graphic Novels and Comics, Vol 6. No 1,108-115

24. Klingbeil, M., Pasewaldt, S., Semmo, A., &Döllner, J. (2017, November). Challenges in user experience design of image filtering apps. In SIGGRAPH Asia 2017 Mobile Graphics & Interactive Applications, 22. ACM.

25. Kuniavsky, M. (2003). Observing the user experience: a practitioner's guide to user research. Elsevier. 26. Manakandan, S. K., Rosnah, I., Mohd, J. R., &Priya, R. (2017). Pesticide applicators questionnaire

content validation: A fuzzy delphi method. The Medical journal of Malaysia, 72(4), 228-235.

27. Moens, B.G. (2018). Aesthetic experience in virtual museums: a post phenomenological perspective. Studies in Digital Heritage, vol. 2:1, doi: 10.14434/sdh.v2i1.24468.

28. Morreall, J. (2009). Comic relief a comprehensive philosophy of humour. Wiley Blackwell.

29. Olsson, T., &Mattilla, K.V-V. (2011). Expected user experience augmented reality services. Personal and ubiquitous computing, 17(2), 287-304.

30. Parsons, M. (1987). The place of cognitive approach to aesthetic response. Journal of Aesthetics Education, vol. 20, (pp. 107-111).

31. Plutchik, R. (1980). A general psychoevolutionary theory of emotion. In Theories of emotion (pp. 3-33). Academic press.

32. Qu, Q. X., Zhang, L., Chao, W. Y., & Duffy, V. (2017). User experience design based on eye-tracking technology: a case study on smartphone APPs. In Advances in applied digital human modeling and simulation (pp. 303-315). Springer, Cham.

33. Sapar, A. A., Siraj, S., & Noh, N. R. M. (2014). AplikasiTeknik Fuzzy Delphi TerhadapKeperluanAspek ‘RiadhahRuhiyyah’untukProfesionalismePerguruanPendidikan Islam. The Online Journal of Islamic Education July, 2(2).

34. Schoeller, F.,&Perlovsky, L. (2016). Aesthetic chills: knowledge-acquisition, meaning-making, and aesthetic emotions. Frontier in Psychology, vol. 7:1093, doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.201601093.

35. Smith, C. (2015). Motion comics: the emergence of a hybrid medium. Writing Visual

36. Speicher, M., Hall, B. D., &Nebeling, M. (2019). What is Mixed Reality?. In Proceedings of the 2019 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 537). ACM.

37. Tobita, H. (2010). DigestManga: interactive movie summarizing through comic visualization. In CHI'10 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 3751-3756). ACM. 38. Uribe, M. (2013). Perception and interpretation in the aesthetic experience of art. Proceedings of the

European Society for Aesthetics, vol. 5, (pp. 514-523).

39. Vassiliadi, M. A., &Sylaiou, S. (2018). Literary myths in mixed reality. Frontiers in Digital Humanities, 5, (pp.21).

40. Verheyen, L. (2015). The Aesthetic Experience of the Literary Artwork: A Matter of Form and Content?. Aesthetic Investigations, 1(1), (pp.23-32).

41. Wang, K. H., Chen, L. C., Chu, P. Y., & Cheng, Y. M. (2009). A study on the design of Augmented Reality user interfaces for mobile learning systems in heritage temples. In International Conference on Virtual and Mixed Reality (pp. 282-290). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

42. Yusop, Y. M., Sumari, M., Mohamed, F., Said, S., Azeez, M. I. K., &Jamil, M. R. M. (2018). The needs analysis in self-concept module development. MOJES: Malaysian Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 3(1), 44-55.


Benzer Belgeler

Description of the cross-section measurements The number of signal events in each of the four production channels, l þ l − γ, ν¯νγ, l þ l − γγ, and ν¯νγγ, is determined

Nisan 1699; Nestalik; II+258 varak; 29 satır; Tezhip özellikleri: Eserde ko- nu başlıkları ve bazı kelimelerin üzerindeki keşideler kırmızı mürekkeple yazılmıştır. Eserde

Expression of the NAPO antigen in senescent cells To test whether NAPO antigen expression is modified dur- ing senescence, MRC-5 cells were grown until passage 40, at which

B.12 This table shows the comparison of the occurrences of signals in C- NMR and its corresponding predictions via NSPLR and STOCSY for Sample

Dirin and Laine (2018) in their study tried to assess the User Experience (UX) of a commercial mobile augmented reality and a developed Virtual Campus Tour mobile augmented

The groups were given the names of the first 18 and commonly used elements in the periodic table 2 weeks in advance and they were asked to investigate their atomic

Nüfusun büyük bir bölümünün geçim kaynağı tarım ve hayvancılık olmakla birlikte ilçe merkezinde yaşayan nüfus genel olarak hizmet sektöründe çalışır.

XX. yüzyılın son çeyreğinde ve XXI. yüzyılın başlarında birçok Türk re‐ sim sanatçısının,  eserlerini  üretirken, dijital  baskı 

Bertram and Chi (2018) analysed and compared the environmental effects between online retailing and traditional retailing regarding carbon emission, waste consumption and energy

Bu çalışmada Trabzon Orman Bölge Müdürlüğü, Maçka Orman İşletme Müdürlüğü, Yeşiltepe Orman İşletme Şefliğine bağlı bazı orman yolları üzerinde mevcut

Hasta son risperidon enjeksiyonundan 4-5 gün sonra ayak ve bacaklarýnda peteþial döküntüler, damaðýnda ve diþ etinde kanamalar olmasý, daha sonra peteþial dökün-

Hal­ buki, bütün bu yerler, başta bu defa seçildiği söylenen Haydar­ paşa gelmek üzere, liman olmak için dar, hele İstanbulun mühim bir transit merkezi

Kul Himmet, Alevî-Bektaşî topluluğunu kimi zaman da “Ezelden divane kıl- dı aşk beni/Hüseynî’yiz mevâliyiz ne dersin/Yine ta’n edersin tarik düşmanı/Hü-

Augmented reality (AR) can be defined as “An enhanced ver- sion of reality where live direct or indirect views of physical real- world environments are augmented with

In this study, we aimed to share our 10 years of experience dealing with pulmonary hypertension (PH) and provide information in real-life settings in terms of demographics,

Bu kapsamda çalışmamızın ilk kısmında işe alma sürecinden, iş arayan kuşağın özelliklerinden ve dijitalleşmenin işe alma sürecine olan etkilerinden; ikinci

Original articles reporting outcomes of case series and comparative studies of RASP, other minimally invasive techniques (HoLEP, Green Light laser enucleation, ThuVEP etc.), or

Children with earlier-onset MS are more likely to have an initial diagnosis of ADEM; a history of infection or vaccination preceding the initial attack; a longer first

Despite the significance, limited research has been carried out to investigate flow experience in paragliding as a hard adventure tourism activity.. The

Çalışma kapsamında incelenen makalelerden yola çıkarak psikiyatrik hastalıklarda sanal gerçeklik ve/veya artırılmış gerçeklik uygulamaları ile ilgili bazı

Çevrimiçi hizmet deneyimi ile tüketiciler, markanın artırılmış gerçeklik kullanımı hakkında olumlu konuşarak, marka için artırılmış gerçeklik kullanımını teşvik

“augmented reality” keywords, it is seen that various augmented reality applications are used for improving English proficiency, anatomy knowledge and some of the nursing

The second step: In this step the following steps were conducted to identify and determine the initial factors influencing on the external environment (macro & micro