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Transandantal

Belgede BURHAN SERDAR AYDINALP_son2 (sayfa 79-84)

2.BÖLÜM

2.2.5. Transandantal

Kant NHQGL HOHúWLUHO IHOVHIHVLQH ³7UDQVDQGDQWDO øGHDOL]m´ DGÕQÕ YHULU .XUDPÕQÕQ ³'HVFDUWHV¶LQ GHQH\VHO LGHDOL]PL\OH´ YH ³Berkeley'in mistik ve hayal kuran ideali]PL\OH´ NDUÕúWÕUÕOPDPDVÕQÕ LVWHU øGHDOL]PLQ WDQÕGÕN DQODPÕQGD³úH\OHULQYDUOÕ÷ÕQGDQúSKH´GX\PDNWDQV|]HGLOHELOHFH÷LQLDPD NHQGLLGHDOL]PLQLQ³úH\OHULQYDUOÕ÷Õ\ODLOJLOL´ROPDGÕ÷ÕQÕV|\OHU

³%HQ VDGHFH úH\OHULQ GX\XVDO WDVDUÕPÕQGDQ YH EX DUDGD YH KHU úH\GHQ |QFH X]DP YH ]DPDQGDQ úSKH HWWLP %XQODUOD GROD\ÕVÕ\OD EWQJ|UQúOHUOHLOJLOLRODUDN\DOQÕ]FDJ|VWHUGLPNLEXQODUúH\OHU GH÷LOGLUOHU VDGHFH WDVDUÕPODPD ELoLPOHULGLUOHU QH GH NHQGL EDúÕQD úH\OHUHDLWEHOLUOHQLPOHU2\VDEHQLPGLOLPGHKLoELU]DPDQELOJLPL]L úH\OHULOHGH÷LO\DOQÕ]FDELOPH\HWLPL]LOHLOJLLoLQHVRNPDDQODPÕQD JHOHQWUDQVVHQGHQWDOV|]F÷EX\DQOÕúDQODPD\Õ|QOHPHNLoLQGL´194

KantoÕ OLWHUDWUGH ³Transendent´ PHWDIL]L÷LQ ELOLQHQ DQODPÕ LoLQ NXOODQÕOÕUYHGHQH\LPLDúDQD\DQL³ilk nedenlere´\DGD³ereksel nedenlere´

J|QGHULU.195 “Transandantal´ terimi 2UWDoD÷ /DWLQFHVLQGH ³DúPDN´ demek RODQ³WUDQVFHQGHUH´PDVWDUÕQGDQWUDQVFHQGHQV\DKXWWUDQVFHQGHQWXPVÕIDW-fiil RODUDN HOGH HGLOPLúWLU %XUDGD ³WUDQV´– N|NQH ³YDUOÕN´ DQODPÕQD JHOHQ

³HQV´ V|] HNOHQPLúWLU ³7UDQVFHQGHQV´ ³YDUOÕ÷Õ DúDQ´ DQODPÕQD gelmektedir.196 1LWHNLP .DQW ³3UROHJRPHQD´GD 7UDQVVHQGHQWDO¶Õ WP GHQH\LQ|WHVLQHJHoHQELUúH\RODUDNGH÷LOGHQH\GHQ|QFH(a priori) olan ama WHNLúOHYL³GHQH\LRODQDNOÕNÕOPDN´RODQELUúH\RODUDNWDQÕPODPDNWDGÕU%X NDYUDPODU GHQH\L DúÕ\RUVD DúNÕQ [transsendent]; GHQH\LQ VÕQÕUODUÕ LoLQGH NDOÕ\RUVDLoNLQ>LPPDQHQW@ELUNXOODQÕOÕúODUÕQGDQ V|]HGLOL\RUGHPHNWLU197

193 .DQW$UÕ8VXQ(OHúWLULVLV-754

194Kant, Prolegomena, s.43

195Rockmore, Hegel, s.34

196'XUDOÕ$NOÕQ$QDWRPLVLV

197Kant, Prolegomena, S.129 Dip not.1

.DQW¶D J|UH WP ELOJLPL] ³GHQH\LP´ LOH EDúODU dQN ELOJL \HWLPL]

GX\XODUÕPÕ]Õ X\DUPDN VXUHWL\OH NHQGLOL÷LQGHQ WDVDUÕPODU ROXúWXUDQ YH EX WDVDUÕPODUÕ NDUúÕODúWÕUPDN ELUOHúWLULS ED÷ODPDN \D GD D\ÕUPDN VXUetiyle duyusal izlenimlerin ham gerecinden nesnelerin deneyim denilen bilgisini HOGHHWPHNDPDFÕ\ODDQODPD \HWLPL]LNDWHJRULOHULKDUHNHWH JHoLUHQGHQH\LQ nesneleri (gegenstand) ROPDVD\GÕPPNQRODPD]GÕ

(YHWELOJLPL]GHQH\LPLOHEDúODU$PDELOJLPL]LQ WP\OHGHQH\LPGHQ GR÷GX÷XQX V|\OH\HPH\L] dQN deneyim bilgimizin kendisi bile J|UJO olarak HGLQGLNOHULPL]LQYHELOJL\HWLPL]LQNHQGLLoLQGHQWHPLQHWWLNOHULQLQELU VHQWH]LGLU 2 KDOGH GHQH\LPGHQ YH WP GX\X L]OHQLPOHULQGHQ ED÷ÕPVÕ] ELU ELOJLYDUGÕU%XWUELOJL\H³a priori ELOJL´GHPHNWH\L] Apriori bilgi, mutlak RODUDN WP GHQH\LPGHQ ED÷ÕPVÕ] RODQ ELOJLOHUGLU %XQODUÕQ NDUúÕVÕQGD LVH J|UJO³DSRVWHULRUL´\DGDND\QD÷ÕQÕGHQH\LPGHEXODQELOJLOHU\HUDOÕU198

.DQW¶ÕQ“6$(´HVHULQGHesas olarak apriori bilgiyi ve bilme yetimizde

³VHQWHWLN D SULRUL \DUJÕ´QÕQ LPNkQÕQÕ DUDúWÕUGÕ÷ÕQÕ LOHUL VUHELOLUL] 2QXQ DúNÕQVDO \D GD WUDQVDQGDQWDO IHOVHIHVL QHVQHOHU LOH ROPDNWDQ oRNa priori RODQDNOÕROGX÷X|OoGHQHVQHOHUHLOLúNLQELOJLWUP]LOHLOJLOHQLU2EXWU bilgiyi transandantal RODUDN DGODQGÕUPDNWDGÕU. %|\OH ELU NDYUDPODU GL]JHVL Transandantal )HOVHIH RODUDN DGODQGÕUÕODELOLU YH E|\OH ELU ELOLP ³DQDOLWLNa priori bilgiyi ROGX÷X JLEL VHQWHWLN Dpriori ELOJL\L GH´ WDP RODUDN NDSVDPDN ]RUXQGDGÕU .DQW¶ÕQEXJLULúLPLRQXQELOLPOHULQ“apriori ilk ilkelere´ uzanan bir temellendirilmesi anOD\ÕúÕQGDQ LGHD RODUDN ELOLP NDYUD\ÕúÕQGDQ D\UÕ GúQOPHPHOLGLU$PDEXWHPHOOHQGLUPHDUWÕNEXUDGDDúNÕQNHQGLQGHELU úH\ RODUDN W|]¶H GD\DQPDN VXUHWL\OH \DSÕOPDPDNWD WUDQVDQGDQWDO DNOÕQ VHQWHWLNDSULRUL\DUJÕODUGDEXOXQPDVÕQDRODQDNWDQÕ\DQVH]JLsel ve kavramsal WHPHOIRUPODUÕHVDVDOÕQDUDN\DSÕOPDNWDGÕUKant, “Transandantal )HOVHIH´\L VDI DNOÕQ WP LONHOHULQLQ VLVWHPL RODUDN QLWHOHQGLULU ³$úNÕQVDO )HOVHIH ELU ELOLPLQ LGHDVÕGÕU NL DUÕ XVXQ HOHúWLULVLQLQ RQXQ LoLQ EWQ ELU WDVDUÕ PLPDUL olarakHGLONHOHUGHQWDVDUODPDVÕJHUHNLU´199

.DQW¶ÕQWUDQVDQGDQWDOIHOVHIHVLEDVLWoH$ULVWRWHOHV¶LQNDWHJRULOHULQLQ\HQL ELU WDVQLIL VH]JLQLQ IRUPDODUÕQÕQ X]D\-zaman) kavramsal formlardan,

198 .DQW$UÕ8VXQ(OHúWLULVLV-53

199 .DQW$UÕ8VXQ(OHúWLULVLV-72

NDWHJRULOHUGHQ D\UÕ WXWXOPDVÕ GH÷LOGLU 9DUOÕ÷ÕQ QLWHOLNOHUL RODUDN NDWHJRULOHUGHQ ELOJLQLQ NDYUDPODUÕ WXWDPDoODUÕ RODUDN NDWHJRULOHUH \DQL RQWRORMLGHQHSLVWHPRORML\HELUJHoLúYDUGÕU.DQW¶WDDUWÕNWUDQVDQGDQWDODODQ VH]JLQLQIRUPODUÕQHVQHQLQELOJLVLQLQNDWHJRULOHULYHDNOÕQG]HQOH\LFLLONHOHUL yani ide, idealar olDUDN \DSÕODQGÕUÕOPÕú ROPDNWDGÕU .DQW $ULVWRWHOHV¶WHQ EX

\DQD ³YDUOÕN ROPDN EDNÕPÕQGDQ YDUOÕ÷ÕQ´ \D GD QLWHOLN YH \NOHPOHUL ROPDNVÕ]ÕQ ³JHQHO RODUDN YDUOÕ÷ÕQ´ DUDúWÕUÕOPDVÕ RODQ PHWDIL]L÷L epistemolojiye, biOJLQLQ GR÷DVÕQÕQ YH RODQD÷ÕQÕQ NRúXOODUÕQÕQ DUDúWÕUÕOPDVÕQD G|QúWUPúWU0HWDIL]LNoLOHUDoÕVÕQGDQELUYDUOÕNWHRULVLRODQDUWÕN.DQWoÕ anlamda bir bilgi teorisi olur.200 Bu ELOJL WHRULVLQLQ XQVXUODUÕ DUDVÕQGD KHP Transandantal (VWHWLN¶LQNRQXVXRODUDN³]RUXQOXNXUXFX|QYHULOHU|÷UHWLVL´

yani sH]JLQLQIRUPODUÕYDUGÕUNLVH]JLOHULPL]EXYHULOLIRUPODUGDLúOHQLUKHP GH NDWHJRULOHU WHPHO NDYUDPODU YDUGÕU -QHGHQVHOOLN |] \D GD ED÷ÕQWÕ NDYUDPODUÕJLEL- DQODPD\HWLPL]YHULOLVH]JLQHVQHOHULQLEXQODUÕQDOWÕQDNR\DU Adorno, Transandantal ya da DúNÕQVDO RODQÕQ HG GHQH\LPL |QFHOH\HQ YH RODQDNOÕ NÕODQÕQ ³]LKQLQ ELU |]HOOL÷L´ ROGX÷XQX V|\OHU YH EX ³PHWDIL]LNVHO GR÷PDWL]PLQ´ NDUúÕVÕQGD \HU DODQ ELU WXWXPGXU ³0HWDIL]LNVHO GRJPDWL]P´

.DQW¶DJ|UHGHQH\LPHDúNÕQRODQÕPXWODNW|]DUD\ÕúÕQGD|WH-GQ\asal, zihnin ELOH|WHVLQHJLGHQELUúH\\DGDLODKLELUW|]RODUDNJ|UU Transandantal ise,

³]LKQLPL]LQ DúNÕQ GR÷DVÕQÕ´ WHPVLO HGHU 'HQH\LPLQ NRúXOODUÕQÕ PPNQ NÕODU EX DQODPGD GHQH\LPLQ |WHVLQH ELOH JHoWL÷L V|\OHQHELOLU DPD \DOQÕ]FD GHQH\LPOHLOLúNiliyse.201

2.27UDQVDQGDQWDOøGHDO

.DQW¶ÕQ“Transandantal Estetik´WH\DSWÕ÷Õ2QXQWUDQVDQGDQWDOIHOVHIHVLQ WHPHONXUXFXELU \DQÕGÕU.DQWX]D\YH]DPDQÕGX\DUOÕ÷ÕQ \DGDKLVVHWPH

\HWLVLQLQIRUPODUÕRODUDNGX\XVDOOÕ÷ÕQVDIYHDSULRULXQVXUODUÕ\DGD“VDIJ|U´

RODUDN ELU WDVDUÕP ELoLPL VH]JL RODUDN “transandantal ideal´ olarak ve DOÕFÕOÕ÷ÕQIRUPODUÕROPDODUÕEDNÕPÕQGDQJ|UQJOHULELoLPOHQGLUHQJ|U\YH GHQH\LPPNQNÕODQYHEX\ROODGDDPSLULNUHDOLWH\HVDKLSúH\OHURODUDNHOH DOPDNWDGÕU.DQW 3UROHJRPHQD¶GDúXQODUÕ yazar:

200 Rockmore, Hegel, s.34

201$GRUQR$úNÕQVDOOÕN.DYUDPÕVV-74

³øQVDQ ELOJLVLQLQ VDI LoLQGH GHQH\VHO KLoELU úH\ WDúÕPD\DQ

|÷HOHULQL DUDúWÕUÕUNHQ DQFDN X]XQ VUH WHNUDU WHNUDU GúQGNWHQ VRQUDGX\XVDOOÕ÷ÕQ VDIWHPHONDYUDPODUÕQÕX]DPLOH]DPDQÕDQODPD

\HWLVLQLQ VDI NDYUDPODUÕQGDQ JYHQLOLU ELU úHNLOGH D\ÕUGHWPH\L YH ELUELULQGHQD\ÕUPD\Õ EDúDUGÕP´202

U]D\ YH ]DPDQ ND\QD÷Õ NHQGLQGH-úH\ ROGX÷X GúQOHQ etkilerden ROXúDQPDO]HPH\LDSULRUL olarak EHOLUOHUg\OHNLJ|U\DGDIHQRPHQ uzay ve zaman IRUPODUÕ DUDFÕOÕ÷Õ\OD WH]DKU HGHr. Bunlar “transandantal anlamda LGHDOIRUPODUGÕU´YH³ampirik JHUoHNOLNOHULQLDQFDNWH]DKUOHULQEHOLUOHQPHVL

\ROX\ODND]DQÕUODU´203

0HNkQOD ED÷OÕ RODPD\DQ KLo ELU GÕú YHUL ROPDGÕ÷Õ JLEL ]DPDQ DNÕúÕ LoLQGH\HUDOPD\DQKLoELULoYHULGHV|]NRQXVXGH÷LOGLU Fakat zaman LoGÕú EWQDOJÕDODQÕQÕNXúDWÕU0HNkQGkhilinde RUWD\DoÕNDQKHUúH\ROXúLoLQGH ELUELULQHED÷ODQÕUYH³ROXSELWPH´RODUDN]DPDQLoLQGHJHUoHNOHúLU204 Biz, dÕú GX\XDUDFÕOÕ÷Õ\ODQHVQHOHUL úHNLOE\NONYHELUELUOHUL\OHLOLúNLOHULEHOLUOL\D GD EHOLUOHQHELOLU RODUDN GÕúÕPÕ]GD YH WP\OH X]D\GD RODUDN WDVDUÕPODUÕ]

$QOÕ÷ÕQ NHQGL Lo GXUXPXQX VH]PHVLQL VD÷OD\DQ Lo GX\X DUDFÕOÕ÷Õ\OD GD Lo EHOLUOHQLPOHUH DLW KHU úH\ ]DPDQ LOLúNLOHUL Gkhilinde WDVDUÕPODQÕU ³]DPDQ GÕúVDORODUDNVH]LOHPH]WÕSNÕX]D\ÕQLoLPL]GHNLELUúH\RODUDNVH]LOHPHPHVL JLEL´205

.DQWÕQ HQ |QHPOL EDúDUÕODUÕQGDQ birisi KHU WUO DOJÕQÕQ NRúXOX RODQ ]DPDQYHPHNkQIRUPODUÕQÕQ\DQÕVÕUDKLoELUGX\XLoHUL÷L EDUÕQGÕUPD\DQ, salt olan bir zaman-PHNkQDOJÕVÕQÕQ GDYDUROGX÷XQXJ|VWHUPHVLGLU206 Bu ancak, saf g|UQQ LPNkQÕQÕ VD÷OD\DQ “Transandantal Apperzeption´ fiili ile PPNQ ROPDNWDGÕU %X ILLO ELUOLN YHULU ³6DI EHQ´L WHúNLO HGHU %X ELUOL÷LQ ELOLQFLRODQ³6DIEHQ´]DPDQGDGH÷LúPH]]DPDQÕELUEWQRODUDNHGIRUP RODUDNELUDUDGDWXWDU6DIEHQ³]DPDQÕQELUOL÷LQLQELOLQFLGLU´YH³]DPDQELU EWQ RODUDN EX ELOLQo VD\HVLQGH WUDQVDQGDQWDO LGHDOLWH ND]DQÕU´207 Biz

202Kant, Prolegomena, s.76

203$KPHW$\KDQdLWLO0DWHPDWLNYH0HWDIL]LNøVWDQEXl, Alfa Y., 2012 s.36

204+HLPVRHWK.DQW¶ÕQ)HOsefesi, s.78-79

205 .DQW$UÕ8VXQ(OHúWLULVLV-80

206Heimsoeth, .DQW¶ÕQ)HOVHIHVL s.79

207G|]NDQ .DQW¶ÕQùHPVL\HVL, s.132

GHQH\LPGQ\DVÕQÕ³øoGX\X\ROX\OD]DPDQGDWDVDUÕPODQPÕúRODUDN³%HQ´YH

³X]D\GDGÕúÕPGDNLQHVQHOHU´RODUDNNXUDUÕ]208

.DQW X]D\ YH ]DPDQÕQ LQVDQÕQ ³DNÕO JFQQ ELoLPOHUL´ ROGX÷XQX V|\OHU 'HPHN NL X]D\ YH ]DPDQÕQ PXWODN ELU UHDOLWHVL \RNWXU 8]D\ YH zaman, ideel ya da GúQVHO YDUOÕNODUGÕU 8]D\-]DPDQ LoLQGHNL GQ\D ELU

³J|UQú´GQ\DVÕGÕUEL]HJ|UQHQ\DGDEL]LPNDYUDGÕ÷ÕPÕ]ELUGQ\DGÕU209

“%DúNDELUGH\LúOH‘ELOHQ|]QH¶ X]D\YH]DPDQLoLQGHEXOXQPD]DNVLQHX]D\

YH ]DPDQ RQGDGÕU 'ROD\ÕVÕ\OD X]D\ YH ]DPDQGDNL EWQ GQ\D VDOW IHQRPHQGLUYHILNLUGLU´210

.DQW¶ÕQ WUDQVDQGDQWDO øGHDOL]PLQH J|UH X]Dyda ve zamanda sezilen her úH\ GROD\ÕVÕ\OD RODQDNOÕ ELU GHQH\LPLQ WP QHVQHOHUL J|UQJOHU \D GD WDVDUÕPODUGÕU YH X]DPOÕ YDUOÕNODU YH EDúNDODúÕPODU GL]LVL RODUDN WDVDUÕPODQGÕNODUÕ \ROGD GúQFHOHULPL]LQ GÕúÕQGD YH NHQGL EDúÕQD ELU YDUROXúODUÕ \RNWXU 2ODQDNOÕ GHQH\LPLQ WP QHVQHOHULQL J|UQJOHU \DQL WDVDUÕPODURODUDNGROD\ÕVÕ\ODWUDQVDQGDQWDODQODPGDGúQVHO(ideen) olarak HOHDODQ.DQW³X]D\GDVH]LOHELOLU ROGXNODUÕ\ROGDGÕúVH]JLQLQQHVQHOHULQLYHLo duyu tDUDIÕQGDQ WDVDUÕPODQGÕNODUÕ \ROGD ]DPDQGDNL WP EDúNDODúÕPODUÕ edimsel olarak kabul eder. ´dQNX]D\GÕúVH]JLQLQELUELoLPLdir ve ondaki nesneler olmadan KLoELUJ|UJOWDVDUÕPPPNQGH÷LOGLU, bu nedenle ondaki X]DPOÕ úH\OHUL HGLPVHO NDEXO HGHELOLUL] ayQÕ úH\ ]DPDQ LoLQ GH JHoHUOLGLU Ama X]D\ÕQ kendisi ve zaman ile birlikte WP J|UQJOHU JHQH GH kendilerinde úH\OHUGH÷LOdir, \DOQÕ]FDWDVDUÕPODUGÕU YHDQOÕ÷ÕPÕ]ÕQGÕúÕQGDbir mevcudiyetleri yoktur.211 %XQD J|UH GHQH\LPLQ QHVQHOHUL NHQGLOHULQGH GH÷LO ancak GHQH\LPGHYHULOLGLUOHUYHRQXQGÕúÕQGDELUYDUOÕ÷DVDKLSGH÷LOOHUGLU%X GHQH\LPLQ EDúOÕFD úDUWÕ LVH WUDQVDQGDQWDO LGHDOOHULQ X]D\ YH ]DPDQÕQ YDUOÕ÷ÕGÕU Uzay ve zaman \DOQÕ]FD |]QHQLQ WHFUEHVLQGH |]QHO JHUoHNOLN RODUDN YDUGÕU 8]D\ YH ]DPDQ |]QH\H LoNLQGLU ³úH\LQ |]´ LVH DúNÕQGÕU EX

208 .DQW$UÕ8VXQ(OHúWLULVLV

209Heimsoeth, .DQW¶ÕQ)HOVHIHVL s.80-81

210 7UNHUhoOHPH6RUXQXV

211 .DQW$UÕ8VXQ(OHúWLULVLV-498

QHGHQOHELOLQLUOL÷HVDKLSGH÷LOGLU212 %L]DQFDNX]D\YH]DPDQLoLQGHNLúH\OHUL bilebiliriz.

Belgede BURHAN SERDAR AYDINALP_son2 (sayfa 79-84)