# Optimization of Aperture Coupled Microstrip Patch Antennas

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## Optimization of Aperture Coupled Microstrip Patch Antennas

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### Figure 1: Double layer aperture coupled microstrip patch antenna embedded in a metal cavity.

2.2 2.22 2.24 2.26 2.28 2.3 2.32 2.34 2.36 2.38 2.4 2

4 6 8 10 12 14 16

Frequency (GHz)

VSWR

VSWR Initial VSWR Constraint

### Figure 2: VSWR before optimization (1st trial).

2.2 2.22 2.24 2.26 2.28 2.3 2.32 2.34 2.36 2.38 2.4 1

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 2

Frequency (GHz)

VSWR

VSWR Optimized VSWR Constraint

### Figure 3: VSWR after optimization (1st trial).

2.2 2.22 2.24 2.26 2.28 2.3 2.32 2.34 2.36 2.38 2.4 5

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Frequency (GHz)

Gain (dBi)

Initial Gain Optimized Gain Gain Constraint

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### The next step in optimization is finding dependency of the design problem on the design variables at the optimum point. Ideally, the optimum design should not be so sensitive to the small variation on the optimal values. For this purpose, the sensitivity of the VSWR and the antenna gain to the all design variables at 2.3 GHz in the ±10% range of the optimal values are performed and depicted from Figure 5 to Figure 12. The rate of change of VSWR and the gain is close to zero in the close

36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44

1.115 1.12 1.125 1.13 1.135 1.14 1.145 1.15

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VSWR

### Figure 5: Sensitivity of VSWR to the patch length at 2.3 GHz.

36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44

8.654 8.656 8.658 8.66 8.662 8.664 8.666 8.668

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Gain (dBi)

### Figure 6: Sensitivity of gain to the patch length at 2.3 GHz.

17.5 18 18.5 19 19.5 20 20.5 21 21.5

1.115 1.12 1.125 1.13 1.135 1.14 1.145 1.15

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VSWR

### Figure 7: Sensitivity of VSWR to the stub length at 2.3 GHz.

17.5 18 18.5 19 19.5 20 20.5 21 21.5

8.656 8.658 8.66 8.662 8.664 8.666 8.668 8.67

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Gain (dBi)

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### 660 PIERS Proceedings, Cambridge, USA, July 5–8, 2010

66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82

1.04 1.06 1.08 1.1 1.12 1.14 1.16 1.18 1.2

La

VSWR

### Figure 9: Sensitivity of VSWR to the aperture length at 2.3 GHz.

66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82

8.664 8.6645 8.665 8.6655 8.666 8.6665 8.667 8.6675 8.668

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Gain (dBi)

### Figure 10: Sensitivity of gain to the aperture length at 2.3 GHz.

72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88

1.09 1.1 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17

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VSWR

### Figure 11: Sensitivity of VSWR to the patch width at 2.3 GHz.

72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88

8.635 8.64 8.645 8.65 8.655 8.66 8.665 8.67 8.675 8.68

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Gain (dBi)

### Vol. 21, 49–50, January 17, 1985.

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