• Sonuç bulunamadı



Academic year: 2021



Tam metin




Crest of the Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire


Why the Middle East?

Rich Fertile soil

Mountainous regions provide shelter and security

Sea Coasts offer rich fishing

Trade Routes between Asia and Europe

Area rich in Spices—Able to trade with both Europe and Asia as a form of income

Silk trade from Asia to Europe brought paper and gunpowder

More than products exchanged—

scientific, religious and artistic ideas also

Topographical Map of the Region


The Beginning

Christian Crusaders fighting since 1095 to stop the spread of Islam

1299 independence declared—Osman Gazi

Gazi reigned until 1326

Land amassed

through diplomacy and warfare

Osman Gazi, the first Ottoman Sultan


Origins of

the Ottoman Empire

After Hz. Muhammad’s death in 632 A.D.,

Muslim faith & power spread throughout

Middle East


Islam Map


By 1215, foreign invaders (Mongols from eastern Asia) took over the lands of the

Muslim empire

Islam’s power in the Middle East started to decline


Mongol Map


Key Factors in Rise of The Ottomans

control of link between Europe and Asia on the Dardanelles strait

military power -Janissaries

growth primarily by land conquest


THEN . . .

A new empire arose out of the leftovers of the old sultanates (kingdoms) of Anatolia (Turkey).

1299 A.D.- one of these sultans (Osman) began to expand his kingdom

Osman started the Ottoman Empire, named after him


ORIGINS of the Ottoman Empire

It was one of the largest & longest lasting empires in history

It was an empire supported &

inspired by Islam

It replaced the Byzantine Empire (former Roman Empire) as the

major power in the Eastern Mediterranean.


The Ottoman Empire:

Attempts at Reform

Reforms began in the late 1700s with Sultan Selim III

Wanted to reorganize and update the army

Wanted to draw on European advisors and techniques

Result = opposition from ulama (Muslim religious scholars) and theJanissaries


Believed these reforms would threaten their power and that they conflicted with Islam


Selim III = overthrown and murdered in 1807


The Ottoman Empire!


Osman –

Osman – Founder Founder of the Ottoman of the Ottoman State




Founded on the principles of Islam

United by Islamic beliefs

Churches were converted into mosques

Tolerant of other religions, especially Christians and Jews

Encouraged loyalty from other religious faith groups


Mosque in Istanbul


The Janissaries

Group of soldiers loyal to the sultan (king)

Army of slaves &

Christian converts to Islam

Helped to expand the empire

Became so powerful that the sultans feared them


Janissaries Pic


Janissaries Photo


Origins cont.

1352 A.D. sultans able to cross over into Europe

1453 A.D.-Ottoman soldiers known as Janissaries conquered Constantinople

(Istanbul) from the Byzantine empire, thus ending the Roman Empire.

1517 A.D. Ottomans had control of Egypt

& extended control to most of North African coast.

1520-1566: peak of power during rule of Suleiman (“The Magnificent”)


Ottoman Map 2


Ottoman Map 1


Period of Growth

Succeeded Seljuk Turks as great Muslim power in Middle East.

Greatest Emperor was Suleyman (1494- 1566).

Military conquests—Captured Belgrade in 1521; turned away from Vienna in 1529.

Ordered construction of Suleiman Mosque

Relied on Janissaries, soldiers who eventually displace Ottoman nobility.

Ottoman counterweight—France and

Ottomans allied versus Austrian Habsburgs.


The Capture of Constantinople The Capture of Constantinople


C. Mehmet II C. Mehmet II

Captures Constantinople in Captures Constantinople in 14531453

Opens it to all groups of Opens it to all groups of people


Uses canonsUses canons

( Canons that would fire ( Canons that would fire 1200 pound boulders to destroy walls) 1200 pound boulders to destroy walls)


The importance of Constantinople

It was the heart of the Byzantine empire for 1100 years

1453 A.D.-conquered by the Sultan Mehmet II & became the Ottoman capital

The effect on Christian Europe was enormous

Renamed Istanbul which means the “city of Islam”

Istanbul became a political and military capital

Positioned at the junction of Europe, Africa, and Asia

Located on both sides of the Bosporus, a narrow strait separating Europe from Asia

The only major city located on two continents


Hagia Sophia ( was a Christian Hagia Sophia ( was a Christian Church turned into a mosque) Church turned into a mosque)



Ruled from 1520- 1566

Made Ottoman

Empire the richest

& most powerful empire in Europe

and Southwest Asia at the time



Greatest Ottoman leader of all time

Brought justice & harmony by

publishing a code of laws (“The Lawgiver”)

Feared & respected by Europeans

Turned Constantinople into a great center of art, music, writing, and philosophy

Wrote some of the most beautiful poetry of his time


Suleiman’s Mosque Suleiman’s Mosque


Suleiman’s Army



Suleiman believed that the entire

world was his possession as a gift of God.

Vast amounts of Islamic territories were annexed or invaded.

Very strong military

Expert in developing gunpowder as a military tool


The Muslim Ottoman Empire eventually controlled what is now:












Much of the coastal strip of North Africa

Parts of Arabia



Located on major trade routes between Europe & Asia

Some goods traded were:

Silk & other cloth


Porcelain from China

Spices such as pepper

Dyes such as indigo


Selim the Grim Selim the Grim

Excellent SultanExcellent Sultan

Harsh personHarsh person

Executes all brothers, father, Executes all brothers, father, and all sons but one

and all sons but one

Captures Mecca and Medina in Captures Mecca and Medina in 15191519


Ottoman Empire had one of the Ottoman Empire had one of the

greatest navies in the world greatest navies in the world


Trade map






The student will analyze continuity and The student will analyze continuity and change in Southwest Asia (the Middle change in Southwest Asia (the Middle

East) leading to the 21st century.

East) leading to the 21st century.


Essential Questions Essential Questions

After the breakup of the Ottoman Empire, After the breakup of the Ottoman Empire,

Europe partitioned (divided) lands in the Europe partitioned (divided) lands in the

Middle East.

Middle East.

1.How did this European partitioning lead to 1.How did this European partitioning lead to

regional conflict?

regional conflict?

2. Land and religion are reasons for 2. Land and religion are reasons for

continuing conflicts in the Middle East.

continuing conflicts in the Middle East.


Describe howhow and and whywhy this is true. this is true.



1571 A.D. – decline began after several military defeats

1683 A.D.-failed invasion of Vienna, Austria

Economic problems

1. trade competition from Americas 2. cheap products from India & Far East

3. development of other trade routes 4. rising unemployment & near



The Ottoman Bureaucracy The Ottoman Bureaucracy


Divans Divans

Social / Military Divans

Social / Military Divans

Heads of Individual Religious Millets

Heads of Individual Religious Millets

Local Administrators

& Military

Local Administrators

& Military

Landowners / Tax Collectors Landowners / Tax Collectors


Muslims JewsJews

Christians Christians



• Military Defeat—Lepanto in 1571; Vienna


• Russian expansion to Black Sea and Austrian expansion in Balkans

• Weak Rulers: Selim (1566-1574) “The Glutton”; Ibrahim (1640-1648) drowned 280 concubines in the Bosphorus.

• Internal disruptions—Janissaries revolt


Continued Decline

• Revolts in the Balkans (Serbia in 1804;

Greece in 1821

• Failed Reforms—Selim III (1789-1807)—

attempts to introduce European style

military opposed by clerics and Janissaries.

• 1850s—Tanzimat reforms of bureaucracy fail due to military losses (Crimea) and

continued Balkan revolts.


Why the Decline

• Doctrine of Closed Revelation

• European incursions (British Land Bridge to India; Russian and Habsburg

expansionism; European devotion to Holy Land)


Decline Map


Pre-WWI Reform Movements

• Prime Minister Midhat Pasha and the Constitution of 1876—unitary state, free press, freedom of

conscience, equality before the law; and equitable taxation.

• Sultan fired Midhat in 1877.

• Russia defeats Ottomans in 1876-1877 war.

• Young Turks emerge calling for Constitution of 1876.

• Struggle between Young Turks and Sultan over constitution interrupted by WWI.


Ottoman Dismemberment

• Ottomans support Central Powers in WWI.

• Treaty of Sevres/Lausanne break up Ottoman Empire.

• France and Britain get Syria and Palestine;

Truncated country of Turkey is created.

• Turkey under Mustafa Kemal [1881-1938]

(Ataturk) becomes secular Muslim State.


Breakup continued

Economic weakness caused military weakness

After losing WWI, the empire lost control of Arab lands

By 1924, the Ottoman Empire no longer existed



The Ottoman Empire officially ended on

Nov. 1, 1922.

Turkey was declared a republic.


Turkey Today


Benzer Belgeler

Liderlik davranış boyutlarının (görev odaklı liderlik, ilişki odaklı liderlik, değişim odaklı liderlik) çalışanların değişim potansiyeline (değişime

Bu partiler arasında komünist propaganda da etkin olan oluşumlar arasında Türkiye Halk İştirakiyun Fırkası, İstanbul Komünist Partisi Türk Gruppası, Türkiye

The first literature review is on colonial discourses, the second one is on the responses of the Ottoman visitors of Europe, the third one is on the Ottoman travelers’

In today ' s manuscript collections of Istanbul, and also in those libraries contaiPing a great deal of material once located in the Ottoman capital, there are numerous

Ahmed Naks¸ˆı had established a partnership with the court biographer, (Gˆanˆızˆade) Mehmed Nˆadirˆı (d. 1627) – in line with the previous partner- ships of ‘Osmˆan and

Başta İstanbul olmak üzere ülkenin muhtelif yerleri hakkında çekilen fotoğraflar kısa bir zaman zarfında ilgi gördü hatta devlet tarafından da destek gördüğü için

1 Mustafa Reşit Paşa vvas the Ottoman Minister of Foreign Affairs during the mentioned time... man monarch upon his free will was making commitments to his

Bedii Şehsuvaroğlu, who is one of the authors of Turkish Medicine History, divides Turkish Pathologic Anatomy training into four periods, including Madrasah Period,

• A number of technologies in the Islamic world were adopted in European medieval technology: various crops; various astronomical instruments, including the

the first modern cosmopolitan (in so far as he advocated a sort of cosmopolitan order which could be established in the world of man) is to ignore the fact that he can be seen as

1 low(‘ver, the dark region ruiiniiig parallel to l lie dimer rows is known to correspond exactly.. The high resolution image clearly tells that tlie step of

Bacterial growth rates were determined by OD 600 measurements and ammonium, nitrite and nitrate concentrations in the samples were determined by the spectrophotometric test kits

Geleneksel ö ğretimin uygulandığı kontrol grubu ile çoklu zeka temelli ö ğretim yönteminin uygulandığı deney grubunun maddenin tanecikli yapısı son test ba

The shortest compressed pulse duration of 140 fs is obtained for 3.1 ␮ J of uncompressed ampli- fier output energy at 18 ␲ of nonlinear phase shift.. Numerical simulations are

Nevertheless, this process naturally was not linear; in other words, the state could order not to collect the nezir money, or provincial communities could resist not to pay

cytoskeleton function 分析,以闡明 propofol 對內皮細胞細胞支架的影 響。3)並以免疫蛋白和 RT-PCR 分析法,探討 propofol 抑制 F- actin 和

The results of solid-phase binding assays and gel filtration chromatography suggest that the N-terminal domain of decorin, when present at low micromolar concentrations, forms

Ma­ latya’nın bir süre önce ANAP’tan istifa eden bağımsız Belediye Başkanı M ünir Erkal, Ankara’ya gitmeden önce yaptığı açıklamada, “ Sayın Turgut

This paper has sought to shed light on the official practices of the legislations on the entrance to the Ottoman Empire territories, travelling inside the

The definition of the death of ‘ the Sick Man ’ in the Middle East for the British Empire At the end of the Great War, the collapse of the Ottoman Empire meant the new territories

5) In the criticisms of Marx to a Russian sociologist M. In other words, Marx gave various kind of information about the political, economic, and social condition of the Asia,